Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice
Springer Science & Business Media, 3. 11. 2007 - Počet stran: 288
Classification is the essential first step in science. The study of science, as well as the practice of science, will thus benefit from a detailed classification of different types of science.
In this book, science - defined broadly to include the social sciences and humanities - is first unpacked into its constituent elements: the phenomena studied, the data used, the theories employed, the methods applied, and the practices of scientists. These five elements are then classified in turn. Notably, the classifications of both theory types and methods allow the key strengths and weaknesses of different theories and methods to be readily discerned and compared. Connections across classifications are explored: should certain theories or phenomena be investigated only with certain methods? What is the proper function and form of scientific paradigms? Are certain common errors and biases in scientific practice associated with particular phenomena, data, theories, or methods? The classifications point to several ways of improving both specialized and interdisciplinary research and teaching, and especially of enhancing communication across communities of scholars. The classifications also support a superior system of document classification that would allow searches by theory and method used as well as causal links investigated.
Co říkají ostatní - Napsat recenzi
Drawing Connections Across These Classifications
62 Theory Method and Phenomena Data
63 Better Paradigms
Are They Correlated with Other Classifications?
Classifying Scientific Documents
71 Faceted or Enumerative?
72 Classifying By Phenomena Studied
73 Classifying By Theory Used
32 What Is a Theory?
33 Evaluating Theories
34 Types of Theory and the Five Types of Causation
35 Classifying Individual Theories
36 Advantages of a Typology of Theory
41 Classifying Methods
42 Typology of Strengths and Weaknesses of Methods
43 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Analysis Revisited
44 Evaluating Methods
45 Classifying Particular Methods Within The Typology
46 Advantages of a Typology of Methods
51 Errors and Biases in Science
52 Typology of Critiques of Scientific Practice
53 Utilizing This Classification
54 The Five Types of Ethical Analysis
74 Classifying By Method Used
75 Links Among Subjects
76 Type of Work Language and More
77 Critiques of Scientific Practice
78 Classifying Philosophy
79 Evaluating the System
82 Advantages of These Various Classifications
83 Drawing Connections Across Classifications
84 Golden Mean Arguments
85 Why Should Science Be Believed?
86 How Can Science Be Improved?
87 How Should Science Be Taught?