Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice

Přední strana obálky
Springer Science & Business Media, 3. 11. 2007 - Počet stran: 288

Classification is the essential first step in science. The study of science, as well as the practice of science, will thus benefit from a detailed classification of different types of science.

In this book, science - defined broadly to include the social sciences and humanities - is first unpacked into its constituent elements: the phenomena studied, the data used, the theories employed, the methods applied, and the practices of scientists. These five elements are then classified in turn. Notably, the classifications of both theory types and methods allow the key strengths and weaknesses of different theories and methods to be readily discerned and compared. Connections across classifications are explored: should certain theories or phenomena be investigated only with certain methods? What is the proper function and form of scientific paradigms? Are certain common errors and biases in scientific practice associated with particular phenomena, data, theories, or methods? The classifications point to several ways of improving both specialized and interdisciplinary research and teaching, and especially of enhancing communication across communities of scholars. The classifications also support a superior system of document classification that would allow searches by theory and method used as well as causal links investigated.

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Obsah

Drawing Connections Across These Classifications
200
62 Theory Method and Phenomena Data
204
63 Better Paradigms
209
Are They Correlated with Other Classifications?
214
Classifying Scientific Documents
218
71 Faceted or Enumerative?
220
72 Classifying By Phenomena Studied
222
73 Classifying By Theory Used
226

32 What Is a Theory?
75
33 Evaluating Theories
79
34 Types of Theory and the Five Types of Causation
81
35 Classifying Individual Theories
83
36 Advantages of a Typology of Theory
96
Classifying Method
100
41 Classifying Methods
102
42 Typology of Strengths and Weaknesses of Methods
104
43 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Analysis Revisited
110
44 Evaluating Methods
114
45 Classifying Particular Methods Within The Typology
117
46 Advantages of a Typology of Methods
145
Classifying Practice
156
51 Errors and Biases in Science
159
52 Typology of Critiques of Scientific Practice
162
53 Utilizing This Classification
193
54 The Five Types of Ethical Analysis
195
74 Classifying By Method Used
228
75 Links Among Subjects
229
76 Type of Work Language and More
230
77 Critiques of Scientific Practice
231
78 Classifying Philosophy
232
79 Evaluating the System
233
Concluding Remarks
240
82 Advantages of These Various Classifications
242
83 Drawing Connections Across Classifications
246
84 Golden Mean Arguments
248
85 Why Should Science Be Believed?
250
86 How Can Science Be Improved?
251
87 How Should Science Be Taught?
260
References
270
Index
280
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Strana 154 - But, acknowledging that no observations or interpretations are perfectly repeatable, triangulation serves also to clarify meaning by identifying different ways the phenomenon is being seen (Flick, 1998; Silverman, 1993; see also Smith, Chapter 34, this volume).
Strana 14 - Each standard and each category valorizes some point of view and silences another. This is not inherently a bad thing —indeed it is inescapable.
Strana 107 - ... so far as it can be done, to include all of them within the pale of the science ; else we shall infallibly bestow a disproportionate attention upon those which our theory takes into account, while we misestimate the rest, and probably underrate their importance.
Strana 122 - The problem with experiments is that they tell you nothing unless they are competently done, but in controversial science no-one can agree on a criterion of competence. Thus, in controversies, it is invariably the case that scientists disagree not only about results, but also about the quality of each other's work.
Strana 72 - Practical wisdom is not concerned with universals only; it must also recognize particulars, for it is practical, and practice concerns particulars...
Strana 152 - To some critical consumers of social research, the admission that our methods are fallible may seem to "prove" the ultimate futility of empirical social science. However, growing knowledge of the individual weaknesses of our methods has led many researchers to reach a different conclusion: social science methods should not be treated as mutually exclusive alternatives among which we must choose and then passively pay the costs of our choices. Our individual methods may be flawed, but fortunately...
Strana 16 - ... does not help us much in research work, not even in arranging its results, as long as we are not able to combine the classification of single items with the presentation of interrelations between them.
Strana 162 - Rationality, Relativism, and Cognition Philosophical theories of science are generally theories of scientific rationality. The scientist of philosophical theory is an ideal type, the ideally rational scientist. The actions of real scientists, when they are considered at all, are measured and evaluated by how well they fulfill the ideal. The context of science, whether personal, social, or more broadly cultural, is therefore typically regarded as irrelevant to a proper philosophical understanding...
Strana 97 - Basic to my argument is the assertion that no one genre of theory of the sort considered here can reasonably claim to yield the full range of insights required for our analytical needs. The best case for progress in the understanding of social life lies in what I see as the expanding fund of insights and understandings derived from a wide variety of theoretical inspirations.
Strana 182 - This book, on aspects of methodology, starts from the premise that methodological writing is of limited use to practising social researchers, who are pursuing a craft occupation, in large part learned 'on the job', through apprenticeship, experience, trial and error, rather than by studying general accounts of method.

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