Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice

Přední strana obálky
Springer Science & Business Media, 3. 11. 2007 - Počet stran: 288

Classification is the essential first step in science. The study of science, as well as the practice of science, will thus benefit from a detailed classification of different types of science.

In this book, science - defined broadly to include the social sciences and humanities - is first unpacked into its constituent elements: the phenomena studied, the data used, the theories employed, the methods applied, and the practices of scientists. These five elements are then classified in turn. Notably, the classifications of both theory types and methods allow the key strengths and weaknesses of different theories and methods to be readily discerned and compared. Connections across classifications are explored: should certain theories or phenomena be investigated only with certain methods? What is the proper function and form of scientific paradigms? Are certain common errors and biases in scientific practice associated with particular phenomena, data, theories, or methods? The classifications point to several ways of improving both specialized and interdisciplinary research and teaching, and especially of enhancing communication across communities of scholars. The classifications also support a superior system of document classification that would allow searches by theory and method used as well as causal links investigated.

 

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Obsah

Classifying Science
2
11 A Simple Classificatory Guideline
4
12 The First Cut and Plan of Work
6
13 Some Preliminaries
10
Classifying Phenomena and Data
24
22 Classifying Data
46
Classifying Theory
52
31 Typology of Theory
56
Drawing Connections Across These Classifications
200
62 Theory Method and Phenomena Data
204
63 Better Paradigms
209
Are They Correlated with Other Classifications?
214
Classifying Scientific Documents
218
71 Faceted or Enumerative?
220
72 Classifying By Phenomena Studied
222
73 Classifying By Theory Used
226

32 What Is a Theory?
75
33 Evaluating Theories
79
34 Types of Theory and the Five Types of Causation
81
35 Classifying Individual Theories
83
36 Advantages of a Typology of Theory
96
Classifying Method
100
41 Classifying Methods
102
42 Typology of Strengths and Weaknesses of Methods
104
43 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Analysis Revisited
110
44 Evaluating Methods
114
45 Classifying Particular Methods Within The Typology
117
46 Advantages of a Typology of Methods
145
Classifying Practice
156
51 Errors and Biases in Science
159
52 Typology of Critiques of Scientific Practice
162
53 Utilizing This Classification
193
54 The Five Types of Ethical Analysis
195
74 Classifying By Method Used
228
75 Links Among Subjects
229
76 Type of Work Language and More
230
77 Critiques of Scientific Practice
231
78 Classifying Philosophy
232
79 Evaluating the System
233
Concluding Remarks
240
82 Advantages of These Various Classifications
242
83 Drawing Connections Across Classifications
246
84 Golden Mean Arguments
248
85 Why Should Science Be Believed?
250
86 How Can Science Be Improved?
251
87 How Should Science Be Taught?
260
References
270
Index
280
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Oblíbené pasáže

Strana 14 - Each standard and each category valorizes some point of view and silences another. This is not inherently a bad thing —indeed it is inescapable.
Strana 16 - ... does not help us much in research work, not even in arranging its results, as long as we are not able to combine the classification of single items with the presentation of interrelations between them.

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