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INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS

TREATIES

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

UNITED STATES SENATE

NINETY-SIXTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

EX. C, D, E, AND F, 95–2-FOUR TREATIES

RELATING TO HUMAN RIGHTS

NOVEMBER 14, 15, 16, AND 19, 1979

Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Relations

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1980

55-159

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

FRANK CHURCH, Idabo, Chairman CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island

JACOB K. JAVITS, New York GOEORGE MCGOVERN, South Dakota

CHARLES H. PERCY, Illinois JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware

HOWARD H. BAKER, JR., Tennessee JOHN GLENN, Ohio

JESSE HELMS, North Carolina RICHARD (DICK) STONE, Florida

S. I. HAYAKAWA, California PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland

RICHARD G. LUGAR, Indiana
EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Maine
EDWARD ZORINSKY, Nebraska

WILLIAM B. BADER, Staff Director
ALBERT A. LAKELAND, Jr., Minority Staff Director

(II)

CONTENTS

447
113

327

444

33

Hearing days:

November 14, 1979-

November 15, 1979-

November 16, 1979.

November 19, 1979..

Statement of:

Anderegg, J. Philip, former lecturer and adjunct professor of law,

Columbia University, Forest Hills, N.Y.---

Baldwin, Roger, founder and first director, American Civil Liberties

Union, New York, N.Y.
Bitker, Bruno V., attorney, Milwaukee, Wis.-
Buergenthal, Thomas, professor, University of Texas Law School,

Austin, Tex...

Butler, William J., president, American Association for the Inter-

national Commission of Jurists, New York, N.Y.

Carey, John, representing Helsinki Watch Committee, New York,

N.Y..

Christopher, Hon. Warren, Deputy Secretary of State, Department of

State, Washington, D.C.-

Derian, Patricia, Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Human Rights and

Humanitarian Affairs, Department of State.

Farer, Thomas J., professor, Rutgers University School of Law,

Camden, N.J., and member, Inter-American Commission on Human

Rights.

Garibaldi, Oscar, professor, University of Virginia Law School,

Charlottesville, Va---

Goldberg, Hon. Arthur, former Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, and for-

mer Ambassador to the United Nations, Washington, D.C.
Goldklang, Jack, attorney-advisor, Office of Legal Counsel, Depart-

ment of Justice.---

Hargrove, John Lawrence, director of studies, American Society of

International Law, Washington, D.C., and lecturer, Johns Hopkins

School of Advanced International Studies

Henkin, Louis B., professor, Columbia University of Law, New York,

N. Y. and codirector, Center for the Study of Human Rights---
Hinckley, Dr. David, chairman, board of directors, Amnesty Inter-

national, U.S.A., New York, N.Y.
Houck, Dr. John R., general secretary, Lutheran Council in the U.S.A.,

Washington, D.C., accompanied by Ralston H. Deffenbaugh, Jr.,
Esq., on behalf of the American Lutheran Church, the Lutheran
Church in America, and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran

Churches..
Inman, Harry A., member, advisory board, International Human

Rights Law Group, Washington, D.C.---
Kahn, Tom, assistant to the president, American Federation of Labor

and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, D.C-------
Lally, Monsignor Francis, secretary, Department of Social Develop-

ment and World Peace, U.S. Catholic Conference, Washington,

D.C.--

Landry, Walter J., attorney, Lafayette, La--,

Lillich, Richard B., professor of law, University of Virginia School of

Law, Charlottesville, Va..

Liskofsky, Sidney, director, Division of International Organizations,

American Jewish Committee on Behalf of National Jewish Com-

munity Relations Advisory Council, New York, N.Y.

10

35

139

418

407

266

76

370

236

Statement of—Continued

Pago McHenry, Hon. Donald, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations....

395 Miller, Hon. George, a Representative in Congress from California.. 131 Moore, John Norton, University of Virginia School of Law, Charlottes

ville, Va., and vice chairman, section of international law, American
Bar Association.

66 Newman, Hon. Frank C., Associate Justice, Supreme Court of California, Sacramento, Calif.

231 Oliver, Covey T., professor of public affairs, Rice University, Houston, Tex.

118 Owen, Roberts B., Legal Advisor, Department of State, accompanied by Arthur Rovine, Assistant Legal Advisor--

24 20 Redlich, Norman, dean, New York University Law School, and at trustee, Freedom House, New York, N.Y., accompanied by Leonard 16 R. Sussman, executive director, Freedom House

248 Schachter, Oscar, professor, Columbia University School of Law, New York, N.Y.

85 Schlafly, Phyllis, Alton, Ill

104 Shestack, Jerome J., president, International League for Human Rights, New York, N.Y.--

338 Simmons, Althea T. L., director, Washington Bureau, National Asso

ciation for the Advancement of Colored People, Washington,
D.C..

74 Sklar, Morton H., chairman, Washington, D.C. Office of the Helsinki Watch Committee for the United States.

260 Sohn, Louis B., Bemis professor of international law, Harvard University Law School, Cambridge, Mass.---

90 Weissbrodt, David, professor, University of Minnesota School of Law, Minneapolis, Minn.-

175 Wipfler, Rev. William L., director, Human Rights Office, National Council of Churches, Washington, D.C.---

352 Yost, Hon. Charles, former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, Washington, D.C.

3 Insertions for the record: Prepared statements of Hon. Jesse Helms..

7, 227 Prepared statement of Hon. Arthur J. Goldberg

12 Prepared statement of Hon. Warren Christopher.

20 Status of the Genocide Treaty in the Senate.

23 Prepared statement of Roberts B. Owen.-

27 Prepared statement of Jack M. Goldklang

38 Reservations to the Civil and Political Rights Covenant submitted by Mr. Rovine --

44 Critique on the reservations proposed by the Department of State

submitted by the Lawyers Committee for International Human
Rights----

48 Response by the Department of State to the Critique of Reservations

to the International Human Rights Covenants by the Lawyers Com-
mittee for International Human Rights ---

54 Ms. Patricia Derian's responses to additional questions submitted by Senator Helms.-

57 Prepared statement of Hon. Claiborne Pell, cochairman of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe..

60 Biographical sketch of John Norton Moore.--.

65 Prepared statement of John Norton Moore.

69 Biographical sketch of Tom Kahn.

76 Response to Senator Pell's query re Which State Department Reservation the NAACP Objected To; submitted by Althea Simmons

81 Mr. Moore's response in connection with the Power Authority of New York v. the Federal Power Commission

83 Biographical sketch of Prof. Oscar Schachter

84 Prepared statement of Prof. Oscar Schachter.

87

89 Biographical sketch of Prof. Louis Bruno Sohn. Prepared statement of Prof. Louis B. Sohn..

92 Prepared statement of Prof. Thomas J. Farer.

97 Prepared statement of Phyllis Schlafly.

106 Prepared statement of Bruno V. Bitker.

116 Prepared statement of Prof. Covey T. Oliver

120

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129 132 138

141 163 164 168 175

178

224

230 231 239 247 251 255 257 258 263 266

268

Insertions for the record-Continued

Letter from Bruno V. Bitker to Senator Pell, dated November 28, 1979,

concerning Genocide Convention...
Prepared statement of Hon. George Miller.
Biographical sketch of Prof. Louis B. Henkin....
Article submitted by Prof. Louis Henkin: The Constitution, Treaties,

and International Human Rights; from the University of Pennsyl

vania Law Review, April 1968.
Prepared statement of Prof. Louis B. Henkin..
Biographical sketch of Prof. J. Philip Anderegg.
Prepared statement of Prof. J. Philip Anderegg-
Biographical sketch of Prof. David Weissbrodt.
Article submitted by Prof. David Weissbrodt: U.S. Ratification of

the Human Rights Covenants; from the Minnesota Law Review,

November 1978....
Letter from Tadeusz Sadowski to Senator Pell, dated December 3,

1979, in reference to the status of treaties in Soviet law...
Letter from J. Philip Anderegg to Senator Church, in reference to

article 7(c) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and

Cultural Rights---
Biographical sketch of Justice Frank C. Newman.
Prepared statement of Walter J. Landry ---
Biographical sketch of Dean Norman Redlich..
Prepared statement of Dean Norman Redlich..
Biographical sketch of John Carey.
Prepared statement of John Carey-
Biographical sketch of Morton H. Sklar.
Prepared statement of the Washington Helsinki Watch Committee.-
Prepared statement of Harry A. Inman...
Statement from International Human Rights Law Group, in reference

to what they have done in the past year...
Witnesses response to additional questions requested by Senator

Javits...
Biographical sketch of Prof. Oscar M. Garibaldi.
Prepared statement of Prof. Oscar M. Garibaldi.
Prepared statement of Prof. Thomas Buergenthal..
Prepared statement of John Lawrence Hargrove.
Prepared statement of Jerome J. Shestack...
Prepared statement of Rev. William L. Wipfier.
Prepared statement of Monsignor Francis Lally.
Article supplied by Department of State: Covenant Open for Signa-

ture by Any Member of U.N. or Party to ICJ..
Prepared statement of Sidney Liskofsky--
Prepared statement of Dr. John R. Houck.

Prepared statement of Dr. David Hinkley... Appendix:

Letter to Senator Church from President Jimmy Carter, dated No

vember 30, 1979.---
Prepared statement of Edward F. Snyder on behalf of the Friends

Committee on National Legislation, Washington, D.C.-
Letter to Senator Church from American Hungarian Federation, dated

December 13, 1979---
Prepared statement of Sarah Goddard Power, chairman, U.S. National

Commission for the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cul

tural Organization..
Letter to Senator Church from the International Union, United Auto-

mobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America

UAW, dated November 29, 1979.-
Prepared statement of Western New York Lawyers Committee for

International Human Rights---
Prepared statement of Denise Tourover Ezekiel, representing Ha-

dassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America, New York,

N.Y..
Prepared statements of Mary Grefe, president, American Association

of University Women; Dr. Wes Schwemmer Cady, Association In-
ternational Relations Representative; Katherine Eaton, chairman,
Association Legislative Program Committee; Carol Leimas, AAUW
United Nations Representative; on behalf of the American Associa-
tion of University Women, Washington, D.C.--

275 319 323 330 336 340 355 371

399 402 409 420

453

453

457

458

460

461

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