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may soon change to north and South, and that ultimately, as the result of time saved in travel, changes will prevail and consequently the shortest routes will come to be the ones to be used. There may be some delay in arriving at that point in the thinking of the world, but we are on the verge now of being technically able to apply such a principle. If you care to glance at the map lying on your desk, and compare it with the large one on the wall, it might interest you to dwell a moment on that subject. For example, if we were going from New York to Chungking, thinking in terms of days to date, we would probably cross the continent, get on a boat in San Francisco and go across the Pacific, get off somewhere at the seaboard in China, and go up to Chungking. In the future, to go from New York to Chungking by the great circle course, you will take off from New York, pass directly over the North Pole—maybe some day Santa Claus as proprietor may build a hotel there for us and feature southern exposure, because all rooms at the North Pole will have southern exposure—and, you would then fly straight on down to Chungking. And, if you will look at these maps before you, you will find that the longest non-stop jump that even today we have to contemplate would be about 2,500 miles. On the other hand, if you were to go from New York to Manila, you would fly across, as Mr. Pogue said, over the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, Victoria Island—where the white Eskimos were discovered— K. y descendants of Franklin's expedition—and then over the rctic you might not go over Alaska, but just practically over Wrangell Island, down the cost of China and on down to Manila. And, assuming that the Japs today had the equipment and wanted to attack Panama by a nonstop flight over the great-circle course, they would not come straight across the Pacific Ocean by the various islands. They would need to fly along the Aleutians, down the coast of Canada, over Denver, and then, the remarkable thing is, over Yucatan and approach the Canal from the Atlantic side—that is the shortest route. It is not straight across the Pacific. So, the whole thinking regarding travel and trade as necessarily being east and west may be on the verge of being remodeled. The air is the greatest of all oceans. It is the only ocean navigable to all points of the earth's surface at all seasons of the year. With the planes coming through that will arise above the storms, get up where the air is smooth, the future of aviation will be like sailing in deep water—deep air if you wish to call it that. In the days which are closing, when we fly in contact with the earth, we are like the Phoenicians of old, following the coast line of the Mediterranean, keeping it always in sight. Now, if you take that coast line and revolve it 90° upward, then the Phoenicians' peninsulas revolved upward become mountains. Where the Phoenicians bumped into those peaks and were wrecked because they did not dare let the coast get out of sight, sometimes flyers have bumped into mountains and wrecked, because they did not get high enough into the air. In other words, it is like a ship putting out into deep water. Long-distance flights in the future will be very high, certainly on occasions when the wind does not unduly retard you.

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For example, meteorologists tell me that if you are flying from the vicinity of Labrador or Baffin Land toward England, that about 95 percent of the time, if you get up around 30,000 feet, you have a tail wind of about 150 miles an hour. So, if your plane is making 300 miles an hour, and the wind is blowing 150 miles an hour, you would be traveling toward Europe at the rate of 450 miles an hour. Your plane is capable of making 300 miles an hour and you are getting another 150 miles an hour from the wind. On the return trip you probably would return low down to escape a head wind.

There is a new.vision about to be realized.

There was a debate in 1938 wherein some people in Congress thought that the companies that fly outside of our 28, States ought to be regulated by the Maritime Commission. In fact, Joseph P. Kennedy asked for that. Your committee very kindly placed all aviation in one bill. I do not think that in the days to come our points of departure for places abroad will necessarily be at our shore lines. Today, when we think of going to Europe, we think of going to New York, or Baltimore, or Boston, or somewhere else and boarding a ship. In the future every town will be its own seaport of the air. Quite likely the towns that are very small today, with air traffic to come will grow in size because of their new world outlets. Mr. BOREN. May I interrupt there, Mr. Chairman? The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Boren. Mr. BOREN. You are getting into a thing that interests me so much that I can hardly resist asking some questions that probably would not because of their bearing on military matters be wise to be made a part of the public record. If this committee could arrange for a 15-minute executive session today, or tomorrow, would you be willing to go into our international situation more in detail with us?

Colonel GORRELL. Anything that the committee desires will be my pleasure, sir.

Mr. BOREN. I feel, Mr. Chairman, that this is of sufficient importance, that it would be worth while for us to do that.

The CHAIRMAN. Perhaps we had better consider that later.
Mr. BOREN. Very well, Mr. Chairman.
The CHAIRMAN. You may proceed, Colonel.

Colonel GORRELL. Looking at the map, or looking at the globe here, even 12 to 18 months ago if you were going to fly from Mr. Hinshaw's home town where I used to live (Pasadena), to Europe, you would think in terms of going to New York, even if you had been going in an airplane, and then fly up to Newfoundland. From Newfoundland you would go across to England. Today, or in the near future, that would not be necessarily so. If you will notice the line from San Francisco across to the north of Scotland or into Norway or Moscow or Berlin, or the principal capitals of Europe, runs up near Spokane, across the Hudson Bay, across Greenland, and near Iceland. If you took off from Los Angeles, instead of San Francisco, you would probably cross the Dakotas, and go across the Hudson Bay, and across Baffin Land or Labrador and across the ice caps of Greenland. That is your shortest route.

Mr. Chairman, on each of those maps are indicated the mileage by the great circle routes. With your permission, I would like to insert

the mileages in the record so that you may see the distances saved in going by the shortest routes, instead of via the former idea of routes. The CHAIRMAN. We will be glad to have you do so. (The routes referred to are as follows:)

AIR RouTES OF THE ARCTIC AREA

Rout Nonstop distances No. in 8tatute miles 1. Cartwright-Julianehaab - --- 634 *2. Churchill-Glasgow — 3, 455 3. Fairbanks-Attu 1,642 4. Fairbanks-Dutch Harbor 997 5. Fairbanks-Murmansk 3, 280 6. Fairbanks-Petropavlovsk 2,027 7. Fairbanks-Yakutsk 2,465 8. Julianehaab-Reykjavik–––––––––––––––––––––––– --- 842 9. Khabarovsk-Yakutsk 952 10. New York-Belfast - 3, 198 11. New York-Cairo –––––– 5, 620 12. New York-Calcutta– - — 8,000 13. New York-Cartwright 1, 210 14. New York-Chunking–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 7,655 *15. New York-Chungking (via Capetown, Bombay, Sadiya) ------------- 16, 120 16. New York-Fairbanks 3, 285 *17. New York-Glasgow - 3, 595 18. New York-Manila —- 8, 610 19. New York-Mexico City– 2, 136 20. New York-Moscow –––––––––– 4,640 *21. New York-Moscow (via Capetown, Abadan).------------------------ 16,600 *22. New York-Murmansk 4, 970 23. New York-Murmansk 4,060 24. New York-Panama ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2,252 *25. New York-Petropavlovsk (via Northwest Passage).------------------ 7,080 *26. New York-Petropavlovsk (via Panama) ---------------------------- 9, 930 *27. New York-Reykjavik --------------------------------------------- 2,880 28. New York-San Francisco -- – 2, 590 29. New York-Seattle -- --------------- 2, 420 30. New York-Tokyo — - 6, 780 31. Reykjavik-Belfast------------------------------------------------ 818 32. Reykjavik-Berlin___ 1, 510 33. San Francisco-Berlin --------------------------------------------- 5, 750 *34. San Francisco-Manila (via Midway, Wake, Guam) -------__________ 8,040 *35. San Francisco-Murmansk ----------------------------------------- 6, 240 *36. San Francisco-Petropavlovsk-------------------------------------- 3,790 *37. San Francisco-Tokyo (via Honolulu) ------------------------------ 6,300 38. Seattle-Fairbanks---------------- +------------------------------- 1, 469 39. Tokyo-Khabarousk ----------------------------------------------- 905 *Shipping lanes. AIR ROUTES, BEFORE PEARL HARBOR (Rand McNally's Principal World Air Line For the Air Age) Route - Mileage” Anchorage-Seattle--------------------------------------------------- 1,441 Auckland-San Francisco--------------------------------------------- 7,405 Auckland-Sydney---------------------------------------------------- 1, 340 Batavia-Sydney----------------------------------------------------- 3,958 Belem-Dakar-------------------------------------------------------- 3,032 Belem-Miami--------------------- --- -------------- 2,894 Cairo Capetown----------------------------------------------------- 5,300

*Distances are via routes shown on map. 83838—43—7

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AIR ROUTES BEFORE PEARL HARBOR—Continued
Route
Cairo-Dakar ------
Calcutta-London---
Capetown-Cairo ---
Chunking-San Francisco---
Dakar-Belem---
Dakar-Cairo-----
Honolulu-San Francisco_

-------
Karachi-London..
Lisbon-London.-
Lisbon-New York (via Azores) -
London-Calcutta..
London-Karachi ----
London-Lisbon-------------
London-Sydney-------
Miami-Belem ----
Miami-Washington--------
New York-Lisbon (via Azores) --
New York-Rio de Janeiro (via Santiago, Chile)
Rio de Janeiro-New York (via Santiago, Chile
San Francisco-Aukland---
San Francisco-Chunking-
San Francisco-Honolulu---
San Francisco-Sydney---
Seattle-Anchorage ----
Sydney-Auckland_-
Sydney-Batavia---
Sydney-London -
Sydney-San Francisco.
Washington-Miami --
*Distances are via routes shown on map.

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PROGRESS UNDER CIVIL AERONAUTICS ACT Colonel GORRELL. The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938, which resulted from this committee's deliberations over a period of 2 years, was, without question, a farsighted piece of legislation conceived, indeed, in the very spirit which Congressman Reece displayed in his opening question, to which I have referred. The Congress may well take pride in the tremendous steps forward which the industry has been able to take as a result of that bill.

As a matter of fact, the industry in 1938 was practically broke. Some companies would have failed in just a few months had you not so timely passed the bill as you did. Today the industry's foundation is much more secure. Before the bill went through, our industry could hardly borrow a nickel from anyone. But since then the bankers have begun to lend generously and what is very important, one of the first loans we obtained was from the insurance fraternity.

Aviation is going to need hundreds and hundreds of millions of dollars and, in addition to going to the banks, we hope to borrow from the insurance people rather freely. That will be made possible by the stability Congress provided by the elimination of the destructive practices that had been going on prior to 1938.

Many Members of the Congress on both sides of the aisle and in both Houses took an aggressive part in achieving that legislation. They will, we hope, feel amply repaid for their time and patience and effort if, through the contributions of civil aeronautics in the great struggle in which our nation is now engaged, the war can be shortened by so much even as a single week. For we are spending today in our

effort to drive forever from the face of the earth the forces of tyranny and aggression, a total sum which exceeds in the space of each 7 days the entire amounts which have been expended by this Government upon civil aeronautics from the very beginning of our history until this moment. As a matter of fact, the chances are very likely that 1 or 2 days' war expenditures will equal every dollar Uncle Sam has ever spent on civil aviation. I can and will be glad to tell you in executive session, of a couple of instances where just a handful of our airplanes, voluntarily given—not taken from our industry by force—was able to change perhaps the whole course of this war, perhaps from , defeat to ultimate victory. So, America has been amply repaid by your foresight and your expenditures. Incidentally, people sometimes talk about the amounts a Federal Government spends on airways. I will come again to that later in my testimony. But please note that up to 1938 when you enacted the Civil Aeronautics Act, the air line companies themselves had spent more cash building airway than had the Federal Government. to that date. Our Army, in 1938, 1937, and 1936, was forced to turn to the air lines and say, “Please won't you turn on your lights, so that we can practice night flying?” It was a horrible condition caused by lack of Federal appropriations and one that I hope Congress will never let happen again. People think that airway aids were being built solely for the commercial air lines. That is not so. We would love to have a right-of-way like the railroads. . We would build it, build our own airways if we were given the opportunity and would be thankful for the chance. The air lines did about 17 percent of the flying on these airways before we started to prepare for the war. On these airways today the percentage of flying by air lines is insignificantly small. Today the flying, is # military. Previously it was mainly military and private flying. I will discuss this subject in detail later, but I might say at this point that some of those airway aids, which your foresight put in are being pulled up and taken to the four corners of the earth and are being used to establish guides for the pilots of our Army and our Navy and our allies. The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 was frankly experimental. The Congress had never theretofore adopted such elaborate regulation for an industry so young. It is fair to say that had our country’s aviation assets not been so precious and had the world situation not been so critical, it is probable that not even this committee would have had the courage to advocate a step so far-reaching. But your wisdom in doing so has been confirmed again and again. And the great contributions which the industry has been able to make and is making to our Nation at war are an enduring memorial to your leadership. For the act has stood the test of experience and has proved its suitability under circumstances which never could have been anticipated when it was drafted. I would like to be able to tell you in detail of the service which, thanks to that action of Congress, this industry has been able to perform during the past year. You are acquainted with many of these services. And the splendid report recently issued by the Select Com

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