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and fair economic opportunity of all nations, and the orderly development of the world.

It should ensure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world.

The advantages of membership in the League, both economically and from the point of view of security, should be so clear that all nations will desire to be members of it.

For this purpose it is necessary to create —

1. For the decision of justiciable questions, an impartial tribunal whose jurisdiction shall not depend upon the assent of the parties to the controversy; provision to be made for enforcing its decisions.

2. For questions that are not justiciable in their character, a Council of Conciliation, as mediator, which shall hear, consider, and make recommendations; and failing acquiescence by the parties concerned, the League shall determine what action, if any, shall be taken.

3. An administrative organization for the conduct of affairs of common interest, the protection and care of backward regions and internationalized places, and such matters as have been jointly administered before and during the

We hold that this object must be attained by methods and through machinery that will ensure both stability and progress; preventing, on the one hand, any crystallization of the status quo that will defeat the forces of healthy growth and changes, and providing, on the other hand, a way by which progress can be secured and necessary change effected without recourse to war.

4. A representative Congress to formulate and codify


rules of international law, to inspect the work of the administrative bodies and to consider any matter affecting the tranquility of the world or the progress or betterment of human relations. Its deliberations should be public.

5. An Executive Body, able to speak with authority in the name of the nations represented, and to act in case the peace of the world is endangered.

The representation of the different nations in the organs of the League should be in proportion to the responsibilities and obligations they assume. The rules of international law should not be defeated for lack of unanimity.



[Similar provisions of the two drafts paralleled for comparison) Text of the Plan Adopted by Text of the Plan Presented the Paris Peace Confer at the Paris Peace Conence April 28, 1919

ference Feb. 14, 1919 PREAMBLE

PREAMBLE In order to promote inter In order to promote internanational coöperation and to tional coöperation and to secure achieve international peace and international peace and security security, by the acceptance of by the acceptance of obligations obligations not to resort to war, not to resort to war, by the preby the prescription of open, just scription of open, just and and honorable relations between honorable relations between nanations, by the firm establish- tions, by the firm establishment ment of the understandings of of the understandings of interinternational law as the actual national law as the actual rule rule of conduct among Govern- of conduct among governments, ments, and by the maintenance and by the maintenance of jus

of justice and a scrupulous re tice and a scrupulous respect for spect for all treaty obligations all treaty obligations in the dealin the dealings of organized ings of organized people with peoples with one another, the one another, the powers signahigh contracting parties agree to tory to this covenant adopt this this covenant of the League of constitution of the League of Nations.


ARTICLE VII The original members of the Admission to the League of League of Nations shall be those States, not signatories to the of the signatories which are covenant and not named in the named in the annex to this protocol hereto as States to be covenant and also such of those invited to adhere to the coveother states named in the annex nant, requires the assent of as shall accede without reserva not less than two-thirds of the tion to this covenant. Such ac States represented in the body cessions shall be effected by a of delegates, and shall be declaration deposited with the limited to fully self-governing Secretariat within two months countries, including dominions of the coming into force of the and colonies. covenant. Notice thereof shall No State shall be admitted to be sent to all other members of the League unless it is able to the League.

give effective guarantees of its Any fully self-governing state, sincere intention to observe its dominion or colony not named international obligations and unin the annex may become a less it shall conform to such member of the League if its ad- principles as may be prescribed mission is agreed to by two- by the League in regard to its thirds of the Assembly, provided naval and military forces and that it shall give effective guar armaments antees of its sincere intention to observe its international obligations and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the League in regard to its military; naval and air forces and armaments.

Any member of the League may, after two years' notice of

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its intention so to do, withdraw
from the League, provided that
all its international obligations
and all its obligations under this
covenant shall have been ful-
filled at the time of its with-

ARTICLE I The action of the League un The action of the high conder this covenant shall be tracting parties under the terms effected through the instrumen of this covenant shall be effected tality of an Assembly and of a through the instrumentality of Council, with a permanent Sec- meetings of a body of delegates retariat.

representing the high contract-
ing parties, of meetings at more
frequent intervals of an Execu-
tive Council, and of a perma-
nent international secretariat to
be established at the seat of the


ARTICLE II The Assembly shall consist of Meetings of the body of delerepresentatives of the members gates shall be held at stated inof the League.

tervals and from time to time, The Assembly shall meet at as occasion may require, for the stated intervals, and from time purpose of dealing with matters to time as occasion may require, within the sphere of action of at the seat of the League, or at the League. Meetings of the such other place as may be de- body of delegates shall be held cided upon.

at the seat of the League, or at The Assembly may deal at its such other places as may be meetings with any matter within found convenient, and shall conthe sphere of action of the sist of representatives of the League or affecting the peace high contracting parties. Each of the world.

of the high contracting parties At meetings of the Assembly shall have one vote, but may each member of the League have not more than three represhall have one vote, and may sentatives.

have not more than three repre-

The Council shall consist of

The Executive Council shall representatives of the principal consist of representatives of allied and associated powers, to

the United States of Amergether with representatives of ica, the British Empire, France, four other members of the Italy, and Japan, together with League. These four members representatives of four other of the League shall be selected States, members of the League. by the Assembly from time to

The selection of these four time in its discretion. Until the States shall be made by the appointment of the representa- body of delegates on such printives of the four members of the ciples and in such manner as League first selected by the As- they think fit. Pending the apsembly, representatives of Bel- pointment of these representagium, Brazil, Spain and Greece tives of the other States, represhall be members of the Council. sentatives of — shall be mem

bers of the Executive Council. With the approval of the ma Meetings of the council shall jority of the Assembly, the

be held from time to time as Council may name additional occasion may require, and at members of the League, whose least once a year, at whatever representatives shall always be place may be decided on, or, failmembers of the Council; the ing any such decision, at the seat Council with like approval may

of the League, and any matter increase the number of members within the sphere of action of of the League to be selected by the League or affecting the the Assembly for representation peace of the world may be dealt on the Council.

with at such meetings. The Council shall meet from Invitations shall be sent to time to time as occasion may re any power to attend a meeting quire, and at least once a year,

of the council, at which matters at the seat of the League, or at directly affecting its interests such other place as may be de are to be discussed, and no de

cision taken at any meeting will be binding on such a power unless so invited.

cided upon.

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