Titles, Conflict, and Land Use: The Development of Property Rights and Land Reform on the Brazilian Amazon Frontier

Přední strana obálky
University of Michigan Press, 14. 7. 1999 - Počet stran: 227
The Amazon, the world's largest rain forest, is the last frontier in Brazil. The settlement of large and small farmers, squatters, miners, and loggers in this frontier during the past thirty years has given rise to violent conflicts over land as well as environmental duress. Titles, Conflict, and Land Use examines the institutional development involved in the process of land use and ownership in the Amazon and shows how this phenomenon affects the behavior of the economic actors. It explores the way in which the absence of well-defined property rights in the Amazon has led to both economic and social problems, including lost investment opportunities, high costs in protecting claims, and violence. The relationship between land reform and violence is given special attention.
The book offers an important application of the New Institutional Economics by examining a rare instance where institutional change can be empirically observed. This allows the authors to study property rights as they emerge and evolve and to analyze the effects of Amazon development on the economy. In doing so they illustrate well the point that often the evolution of economic institutions will not lead to efficient outcomes.
This book will be important not only to economists but also to Latin Americanists, political scientists, anthropologists, and scholars in disciplines concerned with the environment.
Lee Alston is Professor of Economics, University of Illinois, and Research Associate for the National Bureau of Economic Research. Gary Libecap is Professor of Economics and Law, University of Arizona, and Research Associate for the National Bureau of Economic Research. Bernardo Mueller is Assistant Professor, Universidade de Brasilia.
 

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List of Figures xi
1
The Assignment
31
Ratios of occupied land to total land
37
by squatters by region
45
The Politics and Economics
55
INCRAs budget and number of families settled
61
Number of occupations and landless families involved
62
Land area and use in Brazil
68
Expenditures on property rights and the perceived value of a formal title
113
Descriptive statistics for the survey sample
121
Survey data for smallholders
122
Census
131
Mean and maximum share of farmers who were squatters by município in Paraná and Pará
136
Census data
143
Census data
145
Census data
147

A Framework for Analyzing Settlement Property Rights
81
Descriptive statistics for the farm expropriation survey
92
Determinants of INCRA expropriation
94
Settlement by Smallholders and Property Rights on
98
Descriptive statistics for the survey sample
103
landsquatter characteristics
104
Mean characteristics of settlers who stay or leave
106
Determinants of Sell or Stay
107
Determinants of the total number of moves by settlers
108
Perceptions of the value of title
112
The Determinants and Impact of Violent Conflict over
153
Number of land conflicts in Brazil
159
Number of land conflicts by state 198795
161
Number of settlement projects by state 198795
163
Granger causality test
165
Conflicts by município in Pará
167
The Political Provision of Property
192
References
207
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