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FAMILY ENCYCLOPÆDIA;

OR, AN

EXPLANATION OF WORDS AND THINGS

CONNECTED

WITH ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES.

ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS WOOD CUTS.

BY GEORGE CRABB, A. M.
Author of 'English Synonymes," "Technological Dictionary,' and 'Historical Dictionary.'

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TO WHICH IS ADDED,
QUESTIONS ADAPTED TO THE TEXT,

BY THE

AUTHOR OF POPULAR LESSONS.

New-Xork:
PUBLISHED BY C. S. DUNNING.

1831.

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Southern District of New York, ss.

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the 24th day of January, A. D. 1831, in the fifty-Afth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Henry C. Sleight, of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words following, to wit:

“A Family Encyclopædia; or Explanation of Words and Things connected with all the Arts and Sciences. Illustrated with numerous wood cuts. By George Crabb, A. M. Author of 'English Synonymes,' 'Technological Dictionary,' and Historical Dictionary.' Mercury, guided by Minerva, bearing Science round the world. Enlarged and improved. To which is added, Questions adapted to the Text, by the Author of Popular Lessons."

In conformity to the Act of Congress of the United States, entitled, “An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned.” And also to an Act, entitled, “An Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled, an Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints."

FRED. J. BETTS,
Clerk of the Southern District of New York.

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PREFACE,

TO THE LONDON EDITION,

This volume contains definitions of all terms of art and science, with such additional explanations, in some cases, as serve to illustrate something more than the ba meaning of the word. It is drawn up with special regard to brevity, in order to comprehend within a convenient space all words on which the reader may wish for immediate information. To the juvenile and less informed class of readers, a work of this kind cannot fail to be acceptable, particularly as it has been so liberally supplied with illustrations by means of engravings. Although so small in bulk, yet this book will be found to contain a vast number of words which are not to met with in any other work whatever, the explanation of which is nevertheless highly necessary for those who are not in the constant habit of hearing them used in ordinary dis

Of this description are the Latin phrases now adopted into our language, as Sine qua non, Ne plus ultra, and the like. The historical essays on each science, which have been expressly composed for this Dictionary, serve to show the progress of the arts and sciences from the earliest periods to the present time.

course.

NOTE TO THE NEW-YORK EDITION.

This edition has been carefully revised, and such alterations and additions made as were necessary to perfect the work, and adapt it to the United States. The numerous local articles, which abounded in the English copy, have been omitted in this, and their place supplied by such as were suited to our own country. Many errors in the Natural History have been corrected, and numerous

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