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but by an unaccountable mistake, the skull, &c., were thrown overboard. Its dimensions were also omitted to be taken. Knowing that Captain Foster, in the Chanticleer, had left here a self-registering thermometer, in 1829, I directed Lieutenant Johnson to look for it, and note its standing. Immediately on securing the tender he proceeded to search for it, but notwithstanding the particular directions, he did not find it. Since my return home, I have received a letter from William H. Smiley, master of a sealing vessel that touched there in February, 1842, stating that he had found the thermometer, and carefully noted its minimum temperature, which was 5° below zero. Lieutenant Johnson, in company with Assistant-Surgeon Whittle, visited an old crater, at the head of the bay, where a gentle ascent of about four hundred feet, brought them to the edge of an abrupt bank, some twenty feet high, surrounding the crater on the bay side. The crater was about fifteen hundred feet in diameter, from east to west, bounded on the west or farther side by lofty hills, with many ravines, which had apparently been much washed by heavy rains. This led to the belief that the water found within the crater would be fresh, but its taste, and the incrustation of salt found on its borders, showed that it was not so. Near the east end of the crater, the water boils in many places, sometimes bubbling out of the side of a bank, at others near the water's edge, with a hissing noise. The surface water was found to be on a level with the waters of the bay, and to be milk-warm. A few inches below, it was perceptibly colder. No thermometric observations were obtained. The ground near the Boiling Springs was quite hot. In the vicinity were lying quantities of cellular and scoriaceous lava. The only sign of vegetation was a lichen, growing in small tufts, around the mouth of several small craters, of three or four feet in diameter. From these a heated vapour is constantly issuing, accompanied by much noise. Before they returned to the tender, they were overtaken by a violent snow-storm from the northeast, and with difficulty reached the cove without the boat, having been compelled to leave it at the opposite side of the bay, for the force of the wind was such as to render all their efforts to pull against it useless. This weather continued with much snow for three days, when it ceased snowing, but still blew heavy. It was the intention of Lieutenant Johnson to carry over the yawl, for the purpose of sounding in the crater, to ascertain its depth, and get its temperature, which it is to be regretted was not done. On the 17th of March they sailed from Deception Island, having left a bottle enclosing reports, tied to a flagstaff. This was afterwards found by Captain Smiley, who mentions in his letter to me, that in February, 1842, the whole south side of Deception Island appeared as if on fire. He counted thirteen volcanoes in action. He is of opinion that the island is undergoing many changes. He likewise reports that Palmer's Land consists of a number of islands, between which he has entered, and that the passages are deep, narrow, and dangerous.
The Sea-Gull, after a stormy passage, reached Orange Harbour on the 22d, with all hands much exhausted. She was despatched by Lieutenant Craven the next day, as before stated, in search of the launch, (which had been absent eleven days,) on the route she had been ordered to pursue.
In passing over from Hermit Island to that of Evout's, during a brisk gale and heavy sea, the launch, in towing, filled, broke adrift, and was lost. The men had all been previously ordered out of her, and most of the articles removed. The Sea-Gull again reached Orange Harbour on the 5th.
On her arrival, finding the launch had not completed the duties pointed out, I again despatched the Sea-Gull tender, to finish them, particularly to examine and survey a harbour on the east side of Wollaston's Island. She accordingly sailed the next day, and succeeded in performing the required duty, having surveyed a very safe and convenient harbour on the east side, and ascertained that the socalled Wollaston Island formed two islands. Leaving to the easternmost the name of Wollaston, I have given to the western the name of Baily, after Francis Baily, Esq., the well-known Vice-President of the Royal Society, as a small memento of the obligation the Expedition and myself are under to him, for the great interest he took in the equipments, and the kindness shown me while in London when procuring the instruments. The harbour that lies between these two islands was named after the Sea-Gull. A chart of it will be found in the Hydrographical Atlas. Lieutenant Johnson was again transferred to the Vincennes. On the 12th, the Flying-Fish arrived, bringing news of the Peacock and their operations, which will be detailed in the following chapter.
DEPARTURE OF PEACOCK AND FLYING-FISH –GALE – RETURN TO ANCHOR-FINAL DEPARTURE – DIEGO RAMIERES — GALE – SEPARATION – DEFECTIVE OUTFITS OF PEACOCK–CURRENT—GALE–ACCIDENT TO WILLIAM STUART-HIS RESCUE – DEATH – FIRST ICEBERG – DIP OBSERVATIONS — WEATHER – ICEBERGS AND SNOW–GALE – SITUATION OF PEACOCK–BIRDS – AURORA AUSTRALIS-DEEP.SEA SOUNDING—FOGPETRELS-BREAKING ASUNDER OF ICEBERGS-DENSE FOG-DANGERS–SNOW-STORMOBSERVATIONS-FLYING-FISH REJOINS-LIEUTENANT WALKER'S REPORT-SITUATION OF WESSELS – COUNCIL OF OFFICERS – CAPTAIN HUDSON RESOLVES TO RETURN – WEATHER-AURORA–GALE–SHIP ON FIRE–FLYING-FISH DESPATCHED FOR ORANGE HARBOUR-GALE–ACCIDENT TO ROYAL HOPE—PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SEA-WHALESHIP-ARRIVAL OF PEACOCK AT WALPARAISO – FIND THE RELIEF—LIEUTENANT. COMMANDANT LONG'S INSTRUCTIONS-DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED–GALE–TOWER ROCKS-ANCHOR UNDER NOIR ISLAND–DANGEROUS POSITION.—LOSS OF ANCHORS– AWFUL NIGHT-PART CABLES-NARROW ESCAPE—CONDUCT OF COMMANDANT AND OFFICERS–COUNCIL–DETERMINATION OF IT-PROCEED TO VALPARAISO – ARRIVAL OFF THE PORT – COMMANDANT LOCKE, H. B. M. SHIP FLY — RELIEF ANCHORS– ARRIVAL OF FLYING-FISH AT ORANGE HARBOUR-PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTUREWINDS—TEMPERATURE–BAROMETRICAL RANGE–CLIMATE–ANIMALS-WOLF—BiRDS – ORANGE HARBOUR — VINCENNES AND PORPOISE TAKE THEIR DEPARTURE-SEAGULL AND FLYING-FISH TO AWAIT THE RELIEF—ANCHOR IN SCAPENHAM BAY – GALE–ORANGE BAY-FINAL DEPARTURE–WINCENNES AND PORPOISE PART COMPANY —ALBATROSS—DYSENTERY-ISLAND OF MOCHA–TRADE-WINDS—VINCENNES ARRIVAL AT WALPARAISO – ARRIVAL OF PORPOISE AND FLYING-FISH – HEAVY GALE – SEA. GULL LAST SEEN–WHALER.