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made by English residents to substitute machinery, but the prejudices, vexations, and difficulties experienced, have caused them to give up the attempt. The general average is from one to three pipes of wine per acre annually.
The south side of Madeira, as is well known, although not the most fertile, produces the finest wines. Every point which can be cultivated successfully is attended to, and earth is brought to increase the soil from other parts. The kinds of grapes are various, and the wines manufactured as numerous. The common Madeira is obtained from a mixture of Bual, Verdelho, and Negro Molle grapes; the Malmsey and Sercial from grapes of the same name. There is a great difference in the spots and peculiar exposure where the vine grows, and different kinds of wine are produced, according to the state of maturity to which the grape is allowed to arrive at before being gathered. After being expressed, it is put into casks, undergoes the process of fermentation, is clarified with gypsum or isinglass, and a small portion of brandy is added, two or three gallons to the pipe.
The deportment of the lower classes is a mixture of politeness and servility. They invariably noticed us in passing by taking off the cap; and on receiving any thing, kissed their hands, or made some other respectful salutation.
The language spoken in Madeira is Portuguese, but with a rapid utterance, or rather, clipping or abbreviating of their words and expressions.
The ignorance of the common people seems great. Few can read, and still fewer write. It is said they are acquainted with no more than three coins, all of which are Spanish, namely, dollars, pistareens, and bits, and that many kinds of Portuguese coins current at Lisbon will not pass in Madeira. The want of a small description of money is much felt.
I directed a party of officers to make an excursion to the top of Pico Ruivo, in order to ascertain its height, and that of the several points on their way up. They remained four hours on the summit, during which time simultaneous observations were made at the consul's house by Lieutenant Carr and myself. They ascended by the Santa Anna road, which is the only one now said to be practicable. Punta d’Empeño, the highest point of cultivation, was found to be four thousand one hundred feet above the sea. The heights of other points measured will be found in the tables. The results of the observations give for the height of the peak above the American Consulate, six thousand one hundred and eighty-one feet. The
cistern of the barometer at the latter place, above half tide, was found to be by levelling fifty-six feet. Total, six thousand two hundred and thirty-seven feet above half tide.
The magnetical observations for dip and intensity were also mado, and the longitude by chronometer was found to be, 16° 54' 11" W. Latitude by observation, 32° 38' 11" N.
The markets are well supplied with meat, poultry, fish, and all kinds of vegetables.
The bat noticed by Bowdich was the only one of the mammalia seen in a wild state. Of birds, two species of hawks, the linnet, the canary, the goldfinch, the yellow wagtail, and the swift, were all that
Sea fish are abundant; but not a single trace of a fresh water fish was seen or found in the streams. Many specimens of crustacea, insects, and mollusca were added to our collections.
The ride to the Quinta of Mr. Bean at Comancha is one of the prettiest the island affords. It is towards the east end, and some eight or ten miles from the town of Funchal. For variety of scenery and the beauty of its grounds it is not exceeded by any on the island, and it gives a good idea of the effect of English taste when applied to the scenery and fine climate of Madeira. The road to it is the same that has been before described, passing through the gorges and around the different spurs, which gives great variety to it, and presents many fine views. Having a note of introduction from our consul, we stopped at Mr. Bean's gate and sent the servant in, who returned, informing us that Mr. Bean was not at home, but a kind invitation to enter was sent to us from his lady. We did so, riding through hedges of Fuchsias and Myrtles twelve feet high, when a beautiful little cottage on a small level spot burst suddenly upon our view, with its verandahs embosomed in creeping vines, and from the notes of various kinds of birds, one could almost have fancied oneself in an aviary. All united to give the impression that it was the abode of contentment. Several small lakes were partially seen, their dimensions being ingeniously hid from view. On one of thein was seen a tiny fleet safely moored, on another, waterfalls, &c., &c.; the banks of others were surrounded with aquatic plants, among which was the Calla Ethiopica in full bloom. Then again we were struck with the dahlias, geraniums, roses, and jasmines, and the varieties of trees and shrubs from the tropics, besides willows, oaks, elms, &c., that were familiar to us. A view through the trees down the gorge to the distant ocean was beautiful, bringing before us all the bold scenery of Madeira : truly it was an enchanting spot. The grounds are extensive, and laid out with great taste, and each spot appeared
in keeping with the whole. The hill behind the house was found by the sympiesometer to be two thousand and ninety-eight feet above the level of the sea. The cottage had every thing to recommend it, in its library, &c., &c. All is enjoyed here that such a climate as that of Madeira, combined with taste and refinement, can give.
After a stay of a week, we had made all our repairs and arrangements which were necessary in consequence of our defective outfits, recruited the officers and men, and prepared for our departure.
Lest it should be supposed at home that I had exaggerated the state of the ships, I forwarded from Madeira to the Honourable Secretary of the Navy, as an ocular proof how defective our outfit had been, the iron hoops that had rusted off the pumps, and were found in the well-room of the Peacock. Captain Hudson's report relative thereto will be found in Appendix XV.
The diarrhæa made its appearance among the crews, but in dispensing with fruit it was soon stopped.
During our stay, the English schooner Star was seen drifting rapidly upon the Brazen-head, and was only saved by the timely aid of our boats. She was found to be without an anchor, and had been upwards of eighty days at sea from the coast of Africa. The garrison of Loo Rock, on seeing the boats proceeding to render assistance, fired several guns to prevent her being boarded. This would have effectually prevented her receiving any aid from the shore, but as our boats did not understand the signal, they went on, and succeeded in saving her from wreck, and supplying her necessary wants.
With a favourable wind we took our departure, after experiencing many kindnesses and attentions from our worthy Vice-Consul, Henry John Burden, Esq., whose house and time were entirely given up to us during our stay, and to whom I would beg to tender our warmest thanks.
SQUADRON SAILS FROM MADEIRA-CURRENTS-SEARCH FOR SHOALS AND VIGIAS
ARRIVAL AT ST. JAGO-APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND-TOWN OF PORTO PRAYA-ITS
POPULATION-LANGUAGE-VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR-PUBLIC FOUNTAIN-MARKETDRILL OF RECRUITS - DROUGHTS-CLIMATE-SLAVES - DRESS - DEPARTURE FROM
PORTO PRAYA-FURTHER SEARCH FOR SHOALS, ETC.- ARRIVAL AT RIO JANEIRO.