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covered with the ruins of Indian buildings, some of them resembling fortifications.
They now turned up a beautiful valley, on the irrigated fields of which were seen herds of horned cattle, horses, and goats,-a proof that the irrigated land is not exclusively used for tillage.
At six leagues from Lima they reached Ponchorua, the first stopping-place; but the party concluded to go a league beyond it to Caballeros, where they passed the night. They arrived there in sufficient time to make a short excursion to the banks of the Rio de Caxavillo, which appeared a larger stream than the Rimac.
Around Caballeros are very extensive meadows and fields of clover. The posada was found occupied by the guard and muleteers who acted as a convoy of silver from Pasco. They gave up the only room in the house for our gentlemen, into which they were shown, and where a good supper was provided for them, while the guard took up their quarters in the yard. The metal, it was observed, was in large masses of piña, some of them heavy enough to be a load for a mule, and an inconvenient burden to run away with.
They passed the night on the tables and rude seats, under cover,-a luxury they had not yet learned to appreciate.
At midnight they felt the shock of an earthquake. A distant hollow sound was at first heard, which seemed to approach, increasing rapidly, and before they could spring to their feet, the house was rolled and shaken as if it had been on an agitated sea. Mr. Rich says that it was with difficulty he could hold himself on the table where he had been lying. The natives of the adjoining huts ran out into the road, uttering horrible shrieks, striking their breasts, and offering up prayers to the Holy Virgin to protect them. The shock continued severe for forty seconds, but lasted altogether about two minutes; it produced a slight nausea, like sea-sickness, which continued for some time afterwards, and a bewildering sensation, that rendered it difficult to collect their ideas to speak. The sound resembled that produced by throwing stones over precipices, so as to roll on hollow ground beneath. This earthquake was the most violent that had been experienced for some time, and was felt sensibly at Lima and through all Lower Peru. No material damage was done,—in consequence, according to the people of the country, of its not getting to the surface.
Early on the 17th the party set out up the dry mountain valley, the soil of which is composed of stones and loose powdery earth. This kind of ground continued for five leagues, with not a drop of water, nor was a plant or bird collected ; nothing was seen growing but a few Tillandsias. On this route they passed many crosses, mark
ing the spots where there had been loss of life: a sight that was not calculated to excite pleasing thoughts, and bringing to mind not only the great number of murders that had taken place, but the daily occurrence of attacks upon small parties of travellers by the desperadoes of Peru.
Immediately on the confines of this dreary waste is Yanga, a deserted-looking place, but having some good gardens and orchards. At noon they reached Santa Rosa de Quivi, a small place, where they procured some good fruit. After travelling two leagues, they at dark reached Yaso, and stopped at the postmaster's house; he was not at home, but they were permitted to sleep in the porch or veranda. Nothing edible was to be found in the village, except a few potatoes, after supping on which they disposed themselves on the clay and stones, with their arms ready for service,-a precaution necessary at times, even in the most frequented places, in Peru.
During the day, they had been much annoyed by sand-flies, and fleas were as usual in myriads at night; besides these, they had a few musquitoes, but the latter are seldom felt in Peru.
The screaming of parrots during the night had announced that some change had taken place in the vegetation. In the morning they found this to be the case. The land in the vicinity of the town was cultivated, and some good orchards and fields of clover were seen ; the mountains, which had hitherto been gray with Tillandsias, had now assumed a greenish tinge. Agaves made their appearance here, and a few miles beyond, the hills became entirely green : all showed that a different region had been entered. The inclined roofs of the huts proved that rains were experienced, and that it was found necessary by the inhabitants to protect themselves from them.
The valley had now become more contracted, and level ground was seldom seen; the mountains increased in elevation, the roads and scenery partaking of the character of Madeira. Cascades were seen springing from almost the very summits of the high peaks; cattle were grazing, and occasional cultivated patches were mingled with the pasture-grounds; the aid of irrigation was no longer necessary; and the Cordillera plants of the Flora Peruviana, with the vegetation made known by Humboldt and Bonpland, were recognised. At noon, after travelling six leagues, they reached Obrajillo, the rendezvous of the two celebrated Spanish botanists, Ruiz and Pavon, authors of the Flora Peruviana.
There are three towns, Obrajillo, Canta, and San Miguel, about a mile distant from each other, said to contain three or four thousand inhabitants. At Obrajillo, the general to whom they had letters of