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SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT THE OBJECT OF RULERS–END OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR– GENERAL BOLIVAR DICTATOR-HIS AUTHORITY CEASES-GENERAL LA MAR ELECTED — GAMARRA'S TREACHERY — LA MAR ARRESTED AND BANISHED — GAMARRA AND LAFUENTE ELECTED–ATTEMPTS TO SEIZE LAFUENTE–HIS ESCAPE—EXECUTION OF MAJOR ROSEL–CONVENTION CONVOKED–GAMARRA RESIGNS-ORBEJOSO ELECTEDRevoluTION BY BERMUDEz AND GAMARRA – BERMUDEz CAPTURED–orbejoso's AUTHORITY RESTORED–SALAVERRY REVOLTS-DECLARES HIMSELF SUPREME DIC TATOR-UNITES WITH GAMARRA-GAMARRA DEFEATED–ARRESTED BY SALAVERRY AND BANISHED–SALAVERRY MARCHES AGAINST SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE OF SOCA. BAYA – SALAVERRY DEFEATED — TAKEN PRISONER – TRIED AND SHOT – ORBEJOSO REINSTATED — TREATY WITH CHILI NULLIFIED – SANTA CRUZ'S INTRIGUES – DIS. MEMBERMENT OF PERU-ASSEMBLY OF SICUANI – SANTA CRUZ NAMED SUPREME PROTECTOR-CONVENTION OF HUARA–GENERAL FREYRE FITS OUT AN EXPEDITION – chili.AN consul-GENERAL EVADES THE EMBARGo–ŠEizure of PERUVIAN WESSELS-NEGOTIATION.—CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES-INVASION OF ALTA PERUDISASTROUS CAMPAIGN-TREATY OF PEACE–RETURN OF CHILIAN ARMY-CHILIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO RATIFY THE TREATY-LEGION OF HONOUR—DISCONTENT AT SANTA CRUZ'S POLICY — WAR AGAIN COMMENCED–EXPEDITION FROM CHILI – INVASION OF PERU-BATTLE OF LIMA—LIMA TAKEN.—ORBEJOSO ESCAPES-GAMARRA NAMED PRESIDENT—SANTA CRUZ MARCHES UPON LIMA–CHILIANS EMBARK–LAND AT HUARA—PURSUED BY SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE OF YUNGAI—SANTA CRUZ TOTALLY DEFEATED–ESCAPES TO LIMA—THENCE TO AREQUIPA—SEEKS REFUGE ON BOARD A BRITISH SHIP OF WAR – BULNES SAILS AGAIN FOR CALLAO – DISEMBARKS HIS TROOPS–TAKES POSSESSION OF LIMA – CONGRESS CONVOKED–GAMARRA ELECTED PRESIDENT—RESULTS OF BATTLE OF YUNGAI—BULNES WITH HIS ARMY RETURNS TO CHILI–GAMARRA GOES TO AID BOLIVIA—HIS FORCES ROUTED, AND HIMSELF KILLED-CHARACTER OF BOLIVAR — LA MAR-GAMARRA-LAFUENTE–ORBEJOSO – SALAVERRY — SANTA CRUZ-HIS ACTS – COMMERCE–PERU AND CHILI — IMPORTSEXPORTS-TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES.

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The history of Peru, during the last twenty years, is involved in even more obscurity than that of Chili. This arises from the frequent change of rulers, and the consequent alterations in policy and government. The history may be said to be merged in biographical memoirs of its several rulers, who have, without an exception, acted for selfaggrandizement, without ever looking to the benefit of their country, its peace, or happiness. They have, in their public decrees and acts, been lavish and prodigal of the words honour, liberty, justice, &c., in order to extol themselves, and decry their opponents. Yet, without exception, the moment they have attained power, they have pursued the very course they before reprobated, and the country has continued to suffer.

The victory of Ayacucho, gained by General Sucre in December, 1824, put an end to the war of the revolution, and placed the whole country in the possession of the patriots, with the exception of Callao. On the surrender of that fortress, January 7th, 1826, Spanish authority ceased to exist in South America. General Bolivar was at this time President of Colombia, and Dictator of Peru, invested as the latter with constitutional powers, but exercising unlimited authority. Through his means and the troops of Colombia, the liberation of Peru had been effected; and after that event, many of these troops were quartered in Lima, much to the annoyance of the Peruvians, who were anxious to get rid of the military, and the expense of maintaining them. Their presence, and the cost of supporting them, became the more odious, because it was believed they were retained to support the arbitrary power of the Dictator. In the beginning of the year 1827, the Peru

vians, through their intrigues, effected a revolt among the Colombian --~~~ Colomb

troops, who made prisoners of their officers, put an end to the authority
of the Dictator Bolivar, and freed Peru from the presence, as well as
the expense, of foreign troops.
Immediately after this event, General La Mar was elected and
proclaimed President of Peru. He was a native of Guayaquil, reputed
to be a mild and just man, had been brought up in the Spanish army,
and was attached to General San Martin; but he appears to have been
ill adapted to rule over such a people as the Peruvians. At first his
election was popular, and his name took the place of that of Bolivar
over all the gates, &c., in the City of Kings.
At this change every demonstration of joy was witnessed. The
Colombian troops were sent to the neighbourhood of Guayaquil, when
they attempted a revolution against the Colombian authorities in
Guaymas and Quito, (about forming the republic of Equador,) in which
they were partially successful, but were soon put down by General
Flores. These acts led to hostilities between Colombia and Peru, and
in the beginning of 1828, La Mar marched to the frontiers of Colombia,
without any declaration of war, with a part of the Peruvian forces,
leaving General Gamarra, a native of Cusco, who had been the cause
of so much revolution and bloodshed in Peru, to follow with a second
division of Peruvian troops. At this time General Santa Cruz (who
had been for a short time President of Peru,) was President of Bolivia,
and he, together with Gamarra and Lafuente, conspired to overthrow
La Mar, after which Santa Cruz was to be proclaimed President of
Peru, Gamarra Vice-President, and Lafuente Minister of War.
With this plan in view, Gamarra joined La Mar on the frontiers of
Colombia. The battle of Portete took place soon afterwards, when,
in consequence of the treachery or cowardice of Gamarra, the Peru-
vians were beaten, and capitulated on the field of battle to General
| Sucre, who was opposed to them with a much inferior force of
ians. A treaty was signed, but was soon violated by the
Peruvians, and hostilities again commenced. Another division of the
Peruvian army, one thousand five hundred strong, which had been
acting in Bolivia, embarked from Arica, under Lafuente, to join La
Mar, in the north. They arrived at Callao, and were disembarked
against La Mar's orders, and shortly after Lafuente overthrew the
government at Lima, whilst Gamarra arrested La Mar in the north,
and banished him to Costa Rica, in Central America, where he shortly
afterwards died.
Lafuente ejected all the officials, and assumed the government in the
name of Gamarra.
Gamarra and Lafuente, having thus secured the army and govern-

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