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SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT THE OBJECT OF RULERS–END OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR– GENERAL BOLIVAR DICTATOR-HIS AUTHORITY CEASES-GENERAL LA MAR ELECTED — GAMARRA'S TREACHERY — LA MAR ARRESTED AND BANISHED — GAMARRA AND LAFUENTE ELECTED–ATTEMPTS TO SEIZE LAFUENTE–HIS ESCAPE—EXECUTION OF MAJOR ROSEL–CONVENTION CONVOKED–GAMARRA RESIGNS-ORBEJOSO ELECTEDRevoluTION BY BERMUDEz AND GAMARRA – BERMUDEz CAPTURED–orbejoso's AUTHORITY RESTORED–SALAVERRY REVOLTS-DECLARES HIMSELF SUPREME DIC TATOR-UNITES WITH GAMARRA-GAMARRA DEFEATED–ARRESTED BY SALAVERRY AND BANISHED–SALAVERRY MARCHES AGAINST SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE OF SOCA. BAYA – SALAVERRY DEFEATED — TAKEN PRISONER – TRIED AND SHOT – ORBEJOSO REINSTATED — TREATY WITH CHILI NULLIFIED – SANTA CRUZ'S INTRIGUES – DIS. MEMBERMENT OF PERU-ASSEMBLY OF SICUANI – SANTA CRUZ NAMED SUPREME PROTECTOR-CONVENTION OF HUARA–GENERAL FREYRE FITS OUT AN EXPEDITION – chili.AN consul-GENERAL EVADES THE EMBARGo–ŠEizure of PERUVIAN WESSELS-NEGOTIATION.—CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES-INVASION OF ALTA PERUDISASTROUS CAMPAIGN-TREATY OF PEACE–RETURN OF CHILIAN ARMY-CHILIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO RATIFY THE TREATY-LEGION OF HONOUR—DISCONTENT AT SANTA CRUZ'S POLICY — WAR AGAIN COMMENCED–EXPEDITION FROM CHILI – INVASION OF PERU-BATTLE OF LIMA—LIMA TAKEN.—ORBEJOSO ESCAPES-GAMARRA NAMED PRESIDENT—SANTA CRUZ MARCHES UPON LIMA–CHILIANS EMBARK–LAND AT HUARA—PURSUED BY SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE OF YUNGAI—SANTA CRUZ TOTALLY DEFEATED–ESCAPES TO LIMA—THENCE TO AREQUIPA—SEEKS REFUGE ON BOARD A BRITISH SHIP OF WAR – BULNES SAILS AGAIN FOR CALLAO – DISEMBARKS HIS TROOPS–TAKES POSSESSION OF LIMA – CONGRESS CONVOKED–GAMARRA ELECTED PRESIDENT—RESULTS OF BATTLE OF YUNGAI—BULNES WITH HIS ARMY RETURNS TO CHILI–GAMARRA GOES TO AID BOLIVIA—HIS FORCES ROUTED, AND HIMSELF KILLED-CHARACTER OF BOLIVAR — LA MAR-GAMARRA-LAFUENTE–ORBEJOSO – SALAVERRY — SANTA CRUZ-HIS ACTS – COMMERCE–PERU AND CHILI — IMPORTSEXPORTS-TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES.
The history of Peru, during the last twenty years, is involved in even more obscurity than that of Chili. This arises from the frequent change of rulers, and the consequent alterations in policy and government. The history may be said to be merged in biographical memoirs of its several rulers, who have, without an exception, acted for selfaggrandizement, without ever looking to the benefit of their country, its peace, or happiness. They have, in their public decrees and acts, been lavish and prodigal of the words honour, liberty, justice, &c., in order to extol themselves, and decry their opponents. Yet, without exception, the moment they have attained power, they have pursued the very course they before reprobated, and the country has continued to suffer.
The victory of Ayacucho, gained by General Sucre in December, 1824, put an end to the war of the revolution, and placed the whole country in the possession of the patriots, with the exception of Callao. On the surrender of that fortress, January 7th, 1826, Spanish authority ceased to exist in South America. General Bolivar was at this time President of Colombia, and Dictator of Peru, invested as the latter with constitutional powers, but exercising unlimited authority. Through his means and the troops of Colombia, the liberation of Peru had been effected; and after that event, many of these troops were quartered in Lima, much to the annoyance of the Peruvians, who were anxious to get rid of the military, and the expense of maintaining them. Their presence, and the cost of supporting them, became the more odious, because it was believed they were retained to support the arbitrary power of the Dictator. In the beginning of the year 1827, the Peru
vians, through their intrigues, effected a revolt among the Colombian --~~~ Colomb
troops, who made prisoners of their officers, put an end to the authority