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well as advice. A similar belief was entertained in relation to Santa Cruz, although he thought proper to deny the charge. Peru and Bolivia thus became one government, under the name of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, and Santa Cruz was declared Supreme Protector for life, with almost unlimited authority. This was an unpopular measure in Peru, the people alleging that her independence had been bartered for foreign aid. There was little to unite her to Bolivia, no common interest, and but limited commercial intercourse to cement a union. Bolivia, on the other hand, saw herself involved in quarrels in which she had no interest; moreover, Chili and Equador became suspicious, and jealous of the ambitious projects of the Protector of the new Confederation; while the misunderstanding respecting the treaty, and the restrictions that were put on her commerce, tended to widen the breach with Chili. The Protector, on his arrival in Lima, was received with great rejoicings, &c. One of his first acts was to impose a discriminating and additional duty on all goods introduced into the ports of the Confederation, when imported in vessels having touched at a Chilian port, with the ostensible object of encouraging a direct trade from Europe and the United States, to Peru and Bolivia. The Chilians took great offence at this act. Peru in her struggle for independence had received much assistance, first from Chili, and then from Colombia, and was in debt to both for the expense of the war. This very aid produced its usual consequences, by creating those feelings of hostility which the ungrateful indulge in towards their benefactors. It soon became apparent that the vessels of war were chartered by General Freyre, who embarked in them with a number of the discontented Chilians who were in exile, and about two hundred soldiers. This was done secretly, but the Chilian consul-general contriving to get the information, as has been related, despatched a vessel to notify his government, before an embargo was laid. We have heretofore seen, in the chapter which treats of the affairs of Chili, how the whole affair was frustrated, and how Freyre and the others were taken prisoners. The party in power in Chili had always been opposed to Santa Cruz personally, and believed that he had planned and aided the attempt to revolutionize Chili. Under pretence therefore of danger from the preponderating influence of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, under so ambitious and intriguing a head, they resolved on war. For this purpose they deemed it necessary to secure the command of the sea, and they sent two vessels of war to Callao, ostensibly on a friendly mission, but with secret orders to cut out the Peruvian vessels of war, then undergoing repairs in that port. This perfidious act was successfully perpetrated, and the next day Santa Cruz ordered the arrest of La Valle, the resident Chilian consul-general in Lima, but released him in an hour or two, and sent him his passport. Negotiations were entered into, and resulted, as we have besire seen, through the intercession of the English diplomatic agent, in a convention and a cessation of hostilities for four months. It was evident from the first that no peace would ensue; both parties had done wrong, and it is believed that neither wished for peace. Chili having now obtained command of the coast, saw no difficulty in carrying on the war. Accordingly, three thousand men were embarked, landed in South Peru, and marched for Arequipa, where, however, they were speedily cooped up, left without resources, and surrounded by superior forces, daily augmenting under Santa Cruz; who finding the war unpopular in Peru, was desirous of making peace, and waived all the advantages of his position to make a treaty, which was entered into whilst the troops were drawn up in order of battle. "This treaty was highly honourable to both nations. By it the Chilians were allowed to re-embark, on condition of returning to their own country, and afterwards giving up the plundered vessels to Peru. The troops returned to Chili; but the Chilian government refused to ratify the treaty, which is known as that of Paucarpata. Santa Cruz now instituted the Legion of Honour, in order to reward all those who had served with him in his campaigns, and annexed a certain compensation, which amounted to an annual charge upon the state of fifty thousand dollars. Great complaints were made by the Peruvians against Santa Cruz for appointing so many foreigners to office, and for inveigling the Peruvians, who were opposed to him into the country, and then placing them under surveillance. These measures gave great dissatisfaction, and made him so unpopular that the people were at once desirous of throwing off the connexion with Bolivia, which it was now evident Santa Cruz's ambition had brought about. He had besides given public notice in writing to the consul-general of Great Britain, and of other nations, requesting them to communicate from time to time their views, and information relative to commercial matters. This, in the opinion of the Peruvians, had the effect of giving to foreigners undue participation in the government. Even his friends thought that he might have obtained all the information without calling upon them in so public a manner for it, and thus exciting the jealousy
of the Peruvians. He also issued a decree opening the ports of Bolivia and Peru to the Spanish flag. However wise the latter measure might have been in a commercial point of view, it was ill-timed, for the prejudices against the old Spaniards are yet extremely strong in South America, and especially in Peru. Santa Cruz's policy seems to have been to attach foreigners to his person and government, and they for the most part spoke favourably of him ; but as he gained ground with them he lost it with his countrymen, and those who were and ought to have been his supporters were disappointed and mortified to see him pursue such a course. The Peruvians are conceited, proud, and destitute of that education and knowledge which would enable them to understand the necessity of asking foreigners for advice respecting their commercial regulations. Santa Cruz, believing himself firmly established in Peru, was desirous of seeking popularity abroad; and for this purpose wished to have it understood that he was disposed to encourage trade with foreign nations. Chili again despatched to Peru the same troops, augmented by reinforcements, under the command of General Bulnes. With them, as in the former expedition, came the proscribed Peruvians, among whom was General Gamarra. Previous to the arrival of the Chilian expedition, Orbejoso, who had been appointed, by Santa Cruz, President of North Peru, revolted against his authority, and declared the Confederation dissolved. In this he was joined by General Nieto. Orbejoso, however, opposed the Chilians, and declined their assistance, telling them that if they were seeking Santa Cruz, they might seek for him elsewhere. Bulnes replied that he must remain; disembarked his troops, and encamped near Lima. The next morning, as one of his regiments was removing to a more favourable position for water, Orbejoso thought that he intended an attack, and, determining to anticipate it, marched against him, ordering General Nieto to follow. The latter, wishing to play chief, kept back. Bulnes, finding himself unexpectedly attacked, ordered an advance on the Peruvians, drove them before him, and after the battle" entered Lima with his troops, where he maintained himself. Orbejoso, after his defeat under the walls of Lima, secreted himself in that city, and thence, in a few days, fled to the Castle of Callao, where he remained until Santa Cruz again entered Lima. He then embarked for Guayaquil, where he still remains. Nieto sought an asylum on , board one of the foreign ships of war lying in the Bay of Callao, as has been customary in their revolutions. The day after the Chilians entered Lima, Gamarra succeeded in getting himself proclaimed President of Peru, by a few of his minions under the bayonets of Chili, and exercised his authority as far as their influence extended. At the time of these occurrences, Santa Cruz was in Bolivia, when, on learning the treachery of Orbejoso, and the occupation of Lima by the Chilians, he collected his forces in the valley of Jauja, and marched to join General Moran, called the Murat of Peru, who was encamped within three days' march of Lima, with three thousand men, and awaiting him. Santa Cruz approached Lima, after having effected his junction with Moran. He moved on, confident of success, with his well-appointed force, a host of marshals and generals in his suite, and boasted that the Chilians would soon be in a worse situation than when the treaty of Paucarpata was signed. Bulnes, on the approach of Santa Cruz, retired, leaving Lima the day before Santa Cruz entered it, embarked his troops in the fleet, and sailing north, landed near Huara, in the department of Truxillo. This much increased the confidence of the Peruvians, who now considered the Chilians as already captured. Believing that as the rains had commenced, the Chilians had gone into quarters for the winter, Santa Cruz determined to pursue them by land, with which intent he made forced marches, through fog and rain, and overtook the Chilian army at Huara, where he encamped in a strong position. He considered his enemy to be in so bad a plight, that he had so little doubt of overcoming them with ease, that it is said he wrote to his ministers at Lima, in imitation of Bonaparte, (whom he seems to have taken as his model,) “Ah! these Chilians, I have caught them " His intention was to attack them as soon as his soldiers had rested after their fatiguing march. The Chilians did not give him leisure for this, but, to the surprise of Santa Cruz, attacked him in his trenches. One of the most sanguinary battles recorded in South American history ensued; Santa Cruz was signally defeated, and barely escaped with his life, accompanied by no more than twenty soldiers. His whole army was entirely cut up, two of his generals killed, and three taken prisoners. This battle decided the fate of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Santa Cruz was the first to take the news to Lima. He was joined there by Moran, whom he placed in the Castle of Callao, with orders to hold out four months, previous to which time he would bring relief, and reinstate himself in authority. He was proceeding to Arequipa, when news reached him that General Ballevian, the Bolivian commander-in-chief, had declared against him in Bolivia, and also that General Velasco was named President; lastly, Arequipa, the faithful Arequipa, deserted him, with all his officers, with one or two exceptions. Every where his life was cried for; he had but time to mount his horse and fly to Islay, accompanied by General Miller, Cardeno, and Garcia del Rio, who still adhered to him. They were hotly pursued by a troop of cavalry, and arrived just in time to get on board the British sloop-ofwar Samarang, which was lying in the roadstead. Here the Protector found a resting-place, and is said to have felt himself greatly relieved from the incessant troubles he had been engaged in for the last three years. Thus ended his political career. He was taken to Guayaquil, where he has since remained, forming new plans to involve his country in war, for his own personal aggrandizement. He had promised better for Peru than any other ruler before him, but his ambition destroyed all the plans he had formed for his country's good, and he ended by entailing upon her many difficulties and troubles, that will take a long time to recover from. Bulnes, after his victory of Yungai, immediately embarked, and sailed for Callao, where he again disembarked, and took possession of Lima. Gamarra, as I have before said, was proclaimed President, by a Congress convoked by himself, which voted at the point of the bayonet. This has not been unusual in South America, and all the acts of the Congresses may in fact be called the sole will of the chief magistrate, under whatever title they may be issued. Besides naming Gamarra President, this Congress inflicted upon the people a new constitution by his direction. The battle of Yungai, which took place on the 20th January, 1839, concluded the war with Santa Cruz, and entirely overthrew his power by the loss of his whole army (in these countries a very few troops obtain the name). In this battle there were four thousand two hundred Chilians, and four thousand five hundred Peru-Bolivians engaged. Fifteen hundred of the former, and two thousand of the latter, were left dead on the field ; the wounded Chilians were numerous, but those of the Peru-Bolivians were said to have been put to death in the rout which ensued. The battle began at six o'clock in the morning, and was contested for six and a half hours. The Peru-Bolivians complain that at its commencement great advantages were lost to them by the conduct of Colonel Guilaste, who with seven hundred men, betrayed his trust, and early decided the fate of the battle. It is said that every
* This was witnessed by many persons from the housetops and steeples, who represent it as little better than a massacre; scenes occurred that were revolting to the sight. The
history of this so-called battle will be a dark spot on the escutcheons of both Chili and Peru, if the full details be ever given.