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XVIII.-Co NT IN UED.
AMERICAN ARRIVALS AT RIO DE JANEIRO.
1839. 1840. 1841.
From the United States, - 92 97 119
From Europe, - - - - 31 27 39
From Whaling, - - - 26 13 20
- 149 137 178
Wessels of War, - - - 10 14 18
Total, - - - - 159 151 196
XIX.

TO THE OFFICERS OF THE ExPLORING EXPEDITION.

The undersigned, in calling the attention of the officers of the squadron under his command, to their personal appearance, would observe, that in his opinion the example of some of them in this respect is not such as should indicate to the crews of the different

vessels composing the squadron, the necessity which exists of the

greatest attention being paid to their personal appearance and cleanliness, in conformity to the internal rules and regulations of the squadron.

He has not been aware until recently of the extent to which the wearing of mustachios has been carried: they in most cases give a notoriety and appearance of want of attention to neatness, &c., which renders it impossible for the officer, with any degree of consistency, to carry the inspection of their men or divisions to that extent, which he considers absolutely necessary for the health and comfort of all.

He believes it only necessary to appeal to the good sense of the officers in order to remedy their appearance, and feels assured that upon reflection they will see the like necessity and importance of preserving, in the first national expedition, the usual appearance, habits and customs of their own country.

Very respectfully,

CHARLEs WILKEs,

Commandin loring Expedition. U. S. Ship Vincennes, g Exploring Expe

At Sea, October 8th, 1838.

U. S. Ship Vincennes,
At Sea, November 1st, 1838.

SIR,

As some misapprehension may exist in relation to the use for which the reading-room, or forward cabin, is intended, I think it as well to briefly state my views respecting its uses, in which I have no doubt all will see the propriety of concurring.

I view it then in the same light as the ship's library, or a place where every one may usefully employ himself, free from the usual interruption of the ship's duty, and not subject to other practices, which would cause interruption in the use of books.

The accommodations, though not large, will with due respect and consideration for each other's views, be found to be ample, and will naturally prevent any one from appropriating exclusively its small conveniences to himself; or using its table for writing (intended for books and the facility of reference to them), as there no doubt exists sufficient room in the several apartments appropriated to the different officers for that purpose, without incommoding any one.

You will therefore keep its use confined to these purposes, and not permit the issue of slops, &c., to take place in it.

Respectfully,
CHARLEs WILKES,
Commanding Exploring Expedition.

LIEUT. THoMAs T. CRAven,
U. S. Ship Vincennes.

or DERS FOR THE VINCENNES.

THE following arrangements in regard to the scientific duties of the officers of this ship, will be adopted when in port. Lieutenant Craven will aid the scientific corps as Assistant Naturalist, when his duties on board can be dispensed with. Lieutenant Carr will be engaged with me in scientific duty at the observatory. Lieutenant Johnson will perform the duty of first-lieutenant during the absence of Lieutenant Craven, and will be excused from night watch when so engaged. The officers will be divided into watches for duty on board ship, at the observatory, and elsewhere, as follows: 1st watch, Lieutenant Johnson and Passed Midshipman Totten. 2d watch, Lieutenant Alden and Passed Midshipman Reynolds. 3d watch, Lieutenant Maury and Passed Midshipman May. VOL. 1. 2G 2 48

4th watch, Acting-Master North and Passed Midshipman Sandford. A relief watch will at all times be on board ship for such duty as may be required. Mr. Elliott, chaplain, supernumerary for such duty as may be required. Midshipmen Clark and Elliott, will be excused from watch for boats and other duty. Acting-Surgeon Gilchrist will be associated with Mr. Rich, Botanist of the Expedition. Assistant-Surgeon Fox, as assistant to T. R. Peale, Naturalist, and Mr. Dana, Mineralogist. Assistant-Surgeon Whittle as assistant to Dr. Pickering. The officers attached to the tenders Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish, will be associated in scientific duties with the first and fourth watches of the Vincennes and Peacock. The arrangements heretofore made in regard to the duties of the medical officers will be complied with until further orders, which will enable them to devote much of their time to the scientific duties; and it is desirable that they should receive from the scientific gentlemen with whom they are associated, every facility which can be afforded them, and every opportunity of being useful. As the object of this association of duty is to extend as far as possible the operations of the Expedition, it is earnestly requested that the gentlemen composing the scientific corps will on all occasions avail themselves of the services of those officers who by this order have been associated with them, and of all others who may (when their duties and time will permit) be desirous of aiding or advancing the interests of the Expedition, by making collections, drawings, &c., and that the utmost harmony, good feeling, and concert of action may exist at all times, as nothing will so much tend to promote the usefulness, and be the means of extending the objects of the Expedition.

CHARLEs WILKEs,

Commanding Exploring Expedition. U. S. Ship Vincennes, November 20th, 1838.

ORDERS FOR THE PEACOCK.

THE officers to be divided into watches, the same as the Vincennes, and a relief watch to be always on board.

Midshipmen Henry and Hudson excused from watch for boat duty, &c.

Dr. Sickles associated with Mr. Couthouy for scientific duty Dr. Holmes also to aid in scientific duty. The orders in regard to the medical officers the same as the Vincennes. CHARLEs WILKEs,

Commanding Exploring Expedition. U. S. Ship Vincennes,

At Sea, November 21st, 1838.

ORDERS FOR THE PORPOISE.

THE following arrangements in regard to the scientific duties of the officers of the Porpoise when in port, will be adopted. The officers will be divided into watches, to perform duty on board, at the observatory, and elsewhere, as follows: 1st watch, Lieutenant Claiborne and Passed Midshipman Blunt. 2d watch, Lieutenant Hartstein and Acting Midshipman Baldwin. 3d watch, Lieutenant Dale and Passed Midshipman Colvocoressis. Lieutenant Dale in sketching when his other duties will permit. Dr. Guillou on duty as Assistant Naturalist, and will make himself useful in all the departments. The order for medical officers the same as the Vincennes.

CHARLEs WILKEs,

Commanding Exploring Expedition. U. S. Ship Vincennes,

At Sea, November 21st, 1838.

ORDERS FOR THE RELIEF.

The watch officers to be divided the same as on board the Porpoise, as follows: 1st watch, Lieutenant Pinkney and Passed Midshipman Davis. 2d watch, Lieutenant Case and Passed Midshipman Cummings. 3d watch, Lieutenant Underwood and Passed Midshipman Sinclair. Lieutenant Case, when his other duties will permit, will assist in the naturalist department. Dr. Palmer will be attached to the scientific department, as assistant to Dr. Pickering and Mr. Couthouy, Naturalist. Midshipman Blair will be excused from watch for boat duty. Lieutenant Underwood will be employed in sketching, &c.

CHARLEs WILKEs,

Commanding Exploring Expedition U. S. Ship Vincennes,

At Sea, November 21st, 1838.

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SIR,You will proceed and make a survey of a shoal said to exist off Cape St. Thomas, about sixty miles north of Cape Frio, with the Peacock, Porpoise,” Sea-Gull, and Flying-Fish, which are placed under your command for the duty. The shoal is supposed to be about twenty miles east-half-north from Cape St. Thomas. In surveying it, as far as I am able to judge of its locality, I would recommend the following mode to be pursued, viz.: On your arrival at or near its supposed locality, anchor your four vessels at convenient distances from each other, within a suitable distance for admeasurement by sound. Here ascertain your latitude and longitude accurately, measure your distance between all the vessels by sound, firing guns in succession, noting the elapse of time between the flash and report; then, or before, measure the azimuth between each vessel and the sun, and proceed with your boats to sound, radiating from each vessel on the several points of bearings: the position of your boats may be accurately ascertained by the angles on any three of the vessels, and the soundings obtained can at once be inserted on the skeleton chart prepared for the occasion. You will, while at anchor, heave the current log every hour, and notice the direction by the head of your ship. After you have satisfactorily explored the ground that your vessel may have anchored on, you will then, in all probability, know the direction in which the shoalest water lies from you, and by shifting the anchorage of each vessel in succession toward that direction, you will occupy new ground, when the same operation of measuring bases by sound, and taking azimuths, will be gone through with, and then you may approach the position without any danger, as your chart will be constructed as you proceed. Lieutenant Johnson has been ordered to the Porpoise to superintend her movements in regard to this survey, and Lieutenant Alden to your ship, in whose information, as respects the above mode of proceeding, you may rely. Mr. Knox of the Flying-Fish, is also apt at this work. I have

* The Porpoise was not on this duty; these orders were countermanded, as she could not be prepared for sea in season.

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