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X XIV. SAILING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE RELIEF, NOT TO BE OPENED UNTIL AT SEA.

U. S. Ship Vincennes,
Rio de Janeiro, December 18th, 1838.

SIR,You will sail from this harbour, and follow strictly the following instructions, which are intended for your government. 1st. You will proceed with all possible despatch with the Relief, under your command, to Orange Harbour, and there await my arrival. 2d. Orange Harbour is situated in latitude 55° 30' 50" S., and longitude 68° 00 23" W. 3d. You will pursue such a course as will take you on soundings about latitude 45° S., and continue on them all the way to Terra del Fuego, as near as you can to the land, westerly winds prevailing most of the way. 4th. You will pass through the Straits of Le Maire, and double close around the southeast point of Terra del Fuego, keeping in with the land until you are up with the Hermit Islands; you will then have your port open to you clear of hidden dangers. 5th. A plan of Orange Harbour is among your Book of Charts, No. 1079. 6th. On your arrival there, you will set up tide-staves, similar to those now in use by us on the Island of Enxados, and keep an hourly register of the rise and fall. 7th. At Orange Harbour, you will employ your crew in cutting fifty cords of the best wood, and deposit the same at the most convenient landings, for the use of the squadron on its arrival. 8th. You will fill up with water, and have your stores and provisions ready for any delivery. 9th. Your anchorage will be within Burnt Island, where you will establish the light sent you, which you will place in charge of some careful person, to be kept lighted during the night. In the event of its failing, you will keep a bonfire on shore, as a night-signal for the squadron. 10th. You will carefully preserve all the soundings brought up by your deep-sea lead, in papers, with the positions where they were had. 11th. On your route you will make repeated trials of the current, and while on soundings you will anchor your boat with the deep-sea lead, making use of the current-log. Your acting-master has been shown the one in use on board this ship. 12th. You will expose two thermometers, one having its bulb covered with black wool, daily to the influence of the sun, and note the difference in your journal; also that which is shown in the shade ; and you will continue all observations as heretofore. 13th. It is believed that the Relief will not require any repairs; should, however, any be necessary, you will complete them at once. 14th. You will avoid being blown off to the eastward by all the means in your power; running with the coast, and anchoring during the continuance of westerly gales under the land, is recommended. I am not aware that you have any dangers to fear, except kelp, which you may run boldly towards, but avoid entering. 15th. You will afford Mr. Rich, the Botanist, every facility in collecting specimens, &c., and, if possible, seek out places where a quantity of wild celery-grass may be collected for the crews on our arrival. 16th. You will issue to such of the crew as may require the warm articles of clothing supplied for the Exploring Expedition, charging them at the usual slop prices, which will be remitted at the end of the cruise, on the good behaviour of the men. 17th. You will give particular attention to the health and comfort of the officers and crew. Wishing you a safe and speedy passage to your port of destination, I am, &c., CHARLEs WILREs, LIEUT. CoM. A. K. LoNG, Commanding Exploring Expedition. U. S. Ship Relief

U. S. Ship Wincennes,
Off Rio de Janeiro, Jan. 5th, 1839.

SIR,

In the event of our separating, which, however, you will avoid by all possible exertions, you will proceed with all despatch to Orange Harbour, which is situated in latitude 55° 30' 50" S., longitude 68° 00: 23" W., taking such a course as will put you on soundings in about latitude 45° S.; continue on them all the way to Terra del Fuego, keeping close in with the land, as westerly gales prevail.

You will pass through the Straits of Le Maire, and double close round the southeast point of Terra del Fuego, until you are up with the Hermit Islands; you will then have your port open to you, clear of hidden dangers.

You will avoid being blown off to the eastward by all the means in your power, running in with the coast, and anchoring during the westerly gales. I am not aware that you have any dangers to fear except kelp, which you may run boldly for, but avoid entering. On your arrival at Orange Harbour, you will find me or instructions, or you will await my arrival there. You will issue to such of the crew as require them, the articles of warm clothing supplied for the Exploring Expedition, charging them at the usual slop prices, to be remitted them at the end of the cruise, on their good behaviour. You will give particular attention to the cleanliness of your ship, and the health of the officers and crew. A chart of Orange Harbour will be found in your Book of Charts, No. 1079. Lieutenant-Commandant Long, has been directed to keep the light burning during the night, on Burnt Island, as a signal to the squadron. I send you herewith the rates of your chronometers. Very respectfully,

CHARLEs WILKES, Commanding Exploring Expedition. To CAPTAIN WILLIAM L. Hudson, Peacock.

LIEUTENANT-CoMMANDANT C. RINGGOLD,
Porpoise.

Passed MidshipMAN J. W. E. Reid,
Sea-Gull.

PAssed Midship MAN S. R. KNox,
Flying-Fish.

GENERAL ORDERS,

As difficulties frequently occur in regard to the dates of the logbooks and journals of the squadron under my command, owing to the difference between civil and nautical time; hereafter, all the log-books and journals will be kept in civil time, commencing at twelve o'clock this day, being the meridian of the 20th of February, 1839. CHARLEs WILREs, Commanding Exploring Expedition. U. S. Ship Vincennes, Orange Harbour, Feb. 20th, 1839.

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SIR,Although I am aware of the lateness of the season, and the risk to be incurred in attempting to make any explorations within the Antarctic Circle; yet I am of the opinion that there are many advantages to be derived from it, that will prove of incalculable benefit in any future attempts we may hereafter make at the proper season. You will, therefore, with the Peacock and tender Flying-Fish, make the attempt to carry out the following instructions. 1st. On sailing from this anchorage, you will proceed as far as the Ne Plus Ultra of Captain Cook, in longitude 105° W., and from thence you will extend your researches as far to the southward and eastward as you can reach, without rendering yourself liable to be closed in by the ice. 2d. You will carefully note your daily positions on the skeleton chart herewith, and trace upon it, by astronomical and tangent observations, (not by compass,) all the ice you may fall in with during the cruise, whether island or field-ice. 3d. You will navigate to the southward, and eastward until you reach the western side of Palmer's or Graham's Land. ' 4th. It is believed that the latter part of the summer will afford you an opportunity of penetrating here farther south than has yet been done, and possibly meet an extension of Palmer's Land, more to the westward: if you should succeed, you will trace it to the eastward, and return by the southern and eastern side of it, to this anchorage, thus circumnavigating this land, unless you should receive further information from me. 5th. Herewith you will receive a dipping and intensity needle, with which you will make observations on any floe of ice that may be accessible. 6th. In your progress to the eastward from Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, 105° W., you will endeavour to get more and more to the southward, and to pass to the southward of the two small islands called Peter 1. and Alexander, (the farthest land south discovered by the Russians in 1821,) and then fall in with what Briscoe denominated Graham's or Palmer's Land, (its proper American name.) I am of the opinion that it extends much farther to the southward and westward than where Briscoe saw the Adelaide Mountains, and that the land stretches or

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