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trends to the west. This will be a very important discovery, and the lateness of the season is very advantageous for the exploration, if the summer should have proved an open one. My reason for believing in the extension of this land is, that such large quantities of ice-islands, which are frequently drifted to the north and west of Cape Horn, must have some land to form on, and we are aware that all the ice formed about the South Shetlands goes to the eastward. 7th. You must endeavour to reach the southward of Peter I. and Alexander I. Islands, or south of the Russian track. 8th. You will fill up the skeleton chart as you progress, and treat the main ice and ice-islands as if they were land, by inserting them on it, which will be an important addition to our knowledge, if we only obtain the line of ice in those seas; it does not appear ever to have been done by southern navigators accurately ; had it been so, our task would have been more easy. 9th. I should think the winds from the west to the east will be so as to enable you to choose positions to shield your ship under the lee of the icy shore (if I may be allowed the expression). 10th. In the event of your reaching the main land, or a channel leading to it, if one offers, you will despatch the Flying-Fish, with such officers as you may think fit, to make the recognizance of it, if time should not allow a full survey. 11th. It is desirable that the extent and circumference of any islands which you may fall in with be ascertained, with their general character and productions, if any ; specimens of rocks and sketches of their stratification will, if possible be taken. The islands of ice frequently show appearances of stratifications, with earth and rocks attached to them. Any thing gained from them will be interesting and valuable, with a particular notice whether the ice had been much worn away under them. 12th. The aurora australis has not been often seen; it is said to have been seen by Captain Cook near his Ne Plus Ultra, where you will commence. You will notice the extent and height of the ice, &c., and sketch, if possible, any remarkable refraction, with a description which will render it clear. 13th. You will note the observations of the thermometer in the sun and shade; also the temperature of the sea at such depths as you may judge best, with the sounding apparatus sent you. 14th. After having run to Palmer's Land, and not finding an opening or land, you will return to this harbour direct, where you will find this ship; and you will despatch the Flying-Fish to the harbour of Deception Island for information from me, which will, if possible, be left in a bottle, enclosed in a heap of stones (a sailor's grave), on the right-hand side of that harbour, the entrance being at the east; and you will direct the officer in charge of the Flying-Fish to remain there, if he should hear nothing of me, as long as possible, even until the 1st of May, when she will proceed with all despatch to this port. 15th. Should you be shut up or detained by ice, which of course you will avoid by all possible means, you will, if possible, communicate to me at Deception Island, as in case you are out of time, you may rely on my sending there to hear from you, and afford any aid, as soon as the season will permit, to which place your boats or the tender can be navigated. It is my present intention, after surveying the southeast shore of Palmer's Land, to touch at Deception Island on my return north, and obtain or leave information as to our progress, in a bottle, as above described. 16th. You will, of course, give the most particular attention to the health and comfort of the officers and crews of your command, and the most economical expenditure of stores and provisions,—of which you have as much as you can stow, including a large supply of antiscorbutics, preserved meats, &c. 17th. Should it in your opinion be found at any time during the cruise impracticable to carry into effect these orders, and you should be of opinion also that a further attempt south during the present season would be unavailing, owing to bad weather or obstructions, you will, on arriving at such conclusions, proceed direct to Valparaiso, and await further orders, making all necessary arrangements there in regard to a supply of provisions, &c., for the squadron. In such an event, you will immediately despatch the Flying-Fish to this anchorage for further orders, which, if we have left, will be found in a pile of stones on the summit of Burnt Island, near the tent and lighthouse; in the absence of which, however, she will proceed to Valparaiso for further orders. In conclusion, I cannot express to you how much I feel for the safety of yourself, officers, and crews, on this first exploration you are about to make, and how deep an interest and anxiety I shall feel for you, that you may meet with all the success I wish for, and that we may rendezvous again to carry out this great national enterprise, is the fervent prayer of your attached friend, CHARLEs Wilkes,
SIR,The Sea-Gull, placed under your charge, will be attached to the Porpoise. I cannot impress upon you too strongly the necessity of keeping company, as the safety of the crews of both vessels may otherwise be hazarded; you will, therefore, use every means in your power to prevent a separation. 1st. You will keep a strict daily journal of every occurrence relative to your co-operations with the Porpoise. 2d. A skeleton chart will be furnished you, comprising the latitudes and longitudes in which you will cruise, upon which chart an accurate track will be laid down of her route; also the position of all land, islands of ice, &c., which may be observed. Astronomical bearings, when the weather will permit, will be preferable for this purpose. 3d. You will enter also in your journal, the variation of the compass, morning and evening; sketches of refractions, and minute observations of all phenomena that may be seen; also, sketches of stratifications of ice, temperature of the water on the weather and lee sides of iceislands, &c.; the form and direction of currents, and the apparent formation of the ice; also the collection and preservation of any specimens of earth or stones that may be discovered on the ice, and the appearance of any halos, auroras australis, &c. 4th. In the event of parting company, you will rendezvous, first, for the Porpoise, off Cape Melville, George's Island, in latitude 61° 55' S., longitude 58° W., to remain two days; and, secondly, at and near the coast of the east side of Palmer's Land. You will, in such a case of separation, avoid by all possible means being shut up in the ice, and will, on the probability of such an event, proceed at once to Deception Island, which harbour you will if possible enter, and deposit in a grave formed of stones, on the north side of the entrance of the harbour, information relative to your parting company, &c.; and you will remain there for orders as long as your safety will allow, and while there you will hunt for and examine a self-registering thermometer, left there some time since on the point forming the cove.
5th. You will give particular attention to the health and comfort of all on board, and you have an ample supply of provisions, clothing, preserved meats, antiscorbutics, &c. Wishing you a safe and successful cruise, I am, &c.,
CHARLEs WILKEs, Commanding Exploring Expedition. LIEUTENANT R. E. Johnson, In charge of Tender Sea-Gull.
U. S. Ship Vincennes, Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, February 22d, 1839. SIR,
The tender Flying-Fish, placed under your charge, will be attached to the Peacock, and under the orders of Captain Hudson, during the present cruise.
1st. I cannot impress too strongly on your mind the necessity of avoiding, under any circumstances, parting company with the Peacock, as the safety of all on board that vessel may be hazarded thereby; every means will be taken therefore to prevent a separation.
2d. You will keep a strict daily journal of every occurrence relative to your co-operations with that vessel.
3d. A skeleton chart is furnished you, comprising the latitudes and longitudes in which you will cruise, and on which chart an accurate track must be laid down of the route, daily; also, the positions of all land, islands of ice, &c., which may be observed. Astronomical bearings, when the weather will permit, are preferable for this purpose.
4th. You will also enter on your journal, the variation of the compass, morning and evening; sketches of refractions, and minute observations of all phenomena that may be seen; also, sketches of the stratification of ice, temperature of the water on the weather and lee sides of the islands, the form and direction of currents, and the apparent formation of the ice ; also, the collection and preservation of any stones, specimens of earth, &c., that may be discovered on the ice, and the appearance of any halos, auroras australis, &c.
5th. If you should unfortunately be separated from the Peacock, the following rendezvous are fixed by Captain Hudson, for meeting again, if possible:
1st. Latitude 62° S., longitude 80° W., to wait half a day. 2d. to 640 to 900 44 One “
3d. ..., 650 ot 1000 o 4t tu 4th. 4t 669 o 1059 to to $4
And you will seek the nearest to the above named, coasting along the ice as near as possible, and locating your position on your skeleton chart. 6th. The Peacock will pursue the route laid down in the orders to Captain Hudson, of which the following is an extract, and will give you an idea of the intended cruise, viz.: “On sailing from here you, will proceed to longitude 105° W. (Cook's Ne Plus Ultra); from thence extend your researches as far to the southward and eastward as you can reach, without rendering yourself liable to be closed in by the ice. “You will then navigate to the southward and eastward, until you reach the western side of Palmer's or Graham's Land, as it is called on the charts. “It is believed that the latter part of the season will afford you an opportunity of penetrating here further south than has yet been done, and possibly meet an extension of Palmer's Land, more to the westward; if you should succeed, you will trace it to the eastward, and return by the southward and eastward side of it to this anchorage, (thus circumnavigating this land,) unless you should receive any information from me previously. “In your progress from Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, of longitude 105° W., you will endeavour to get more and more to the southward, if possible, and reach to the southward of the small islands of Peter I., and Alexander, the farthest land south discovered by the Russians in 1821, and fall in with what Briscoe has denominated Graham's or Palmer's Land, (its proper American name.) I am of the opinion that it extends much farther to the southward and westward than where Briscoe saw the Adelaide Mountains. “Your endeavours must be to get to the south of Peter I., and Alexander Islands, or south of the Russian track.” 7th. In the event of your separating from the Peacock, and not joining her again, which, however, is not probable, you will coast along the ice, agreeably to directions, as far as it may be prudent and safe, and proceed to Deception Island for information in regard to us, which if there, will be found in a sailor's grave, at the north of the entrance of the harbour, where you will deposit a communication; and in the absence of other orders, you will proceed to this anchorage, where you will find me, or orders on the summit of Burnt Island, at the flagstaff; in the absence of which, or any of the squadron, you will proceed direct to Valparaiso. 8th. You will attend particularly to the health and comfort of all on board; you have ten months' provisions on board for the crew, and