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an ample supply of warm clothing, antiscorbutics, preserved meats, &c., in the event of detention, which will be expended in the most judicious manner.

Wishing you a safe and successful cruise,

I am, &c.,
Charles WILKES,
Commanding Exploring Expedition.

P. S. You will, if possible, obtain from Deception Island a selfregistering thermometer, said to have been left some time since on the point of the cove.

To LIEUT. W.M. M. WALKER,
In charge of Tender Flying-Fish.

XXVIII.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS, FoR BOAT DUTY, SURVEYING, ETC.

IMMEDIATELY after anchoring in position, you will hoist your distinguishing pennant, keeping it up till every thing is done, such as distance measured, astronomical bearings taken on one of the vessels, the angle between her and the others; also, angles on any thing remarkable on shore, such as headlands, flag or signal staves, huts, trees, &c. When ready to change your position, haul down your distinguishing pennant; and when ready to measure the base or distance by sound, which is the first thing to be done after you are in position, hoist your ensign at the fore; as soon as all the vessels have answered, you will dip it and fire in a few seconds; run up the ensign again, and repeat firing three times.

To communicate the elapsed time to this vessel, hoist the distinguishing pennant of the vessel whose distance is to be shown, and with it the “number” indicating the number of seconds; the quarter, half, or three-quarters, may be designated by hoisting the first, second, and third repeaters under all, thus—the third repeater under No. 18, would sign.fy eighteen and three-quarters seconds of time. It will be seen, therefore, that when it is necessary to repeat a number, one of a similar denomination must be used, as another signification is given to the repeaters.

The astronomical bearings may be communicated in the following manner, with the distinguishing pennant of the vessel whose bearing is to be shown: hoist the “number" indicating the degrees with the cornet above, if the bearing be from the north, but under, if from the south; then the corresponding numbers for the minutes and seconds; with the preparatory pennant, if to the east, or without it, if to the west, thus: the cornet under 56°, would signify S. 56; then 04–26, would correspond, 04' and 26" W., or, the whole being put together, would stand, S. 56°, 04' 26" W. Each officer, before leaving the ship, will see that his boat is furnished with water and provisions for three days for her crew ; that her oars, spars, and sails are in good order, compass, sextant, spy-glass, log-line and current-log, leads and lines, grapnel and lines for mooring, materials for striking a light, lantern, and field-book; also, that his watch has been set to ship's time. The boats will be divided into parties or divisions; each division will be under the orders of an officer appointed to take the charge, who will receive the general instructions for the day, and who will wear his boats ensign as a distinguishing mark. The formula of the field-books will be understood as follows:

At the head of each page the name of the boat and the date will be inserted. In column 1st. The time of taking the angles. 2d. The soundings, and their nature. 3d. The soundings reduced. 4th. The name of the object and the angle to the left of the observer. 5th. The name of the centre objects only, unless there be three angles measured; then, the centre angle will be inserted with both the centre objects. 6th. The name of the object and the angle to the right of the observer.

Officers are expected to note any observations on the current, soundings, &c., that they may deem necessary to make the results less liable to misconstruction, and obviate explanation. When a line of soundings extends to, or commences at the shore, the point must be accurately fixed by at least three angles, and the shore sketched in on both sides for some hundred yards, or to some well-defined object. The daily orders must be carried into strict execution; and if an officer does not clearly understand, or perceive any difficulty therein, he will so state before leaving the vessel. If a boat should require assistance, she will hoist the blue flag, or No. 5. After returning on board, each officer will furnish his commanding officer with a copy of his day's work, with the soundings reduced to the standard ; a diagram of his boat's track; and, if co-operating with other boats, their relative positions at each anchorage; it being underWOL. I. 50

stood in the diagrams, that the top of the paper will always represent the north.

In case of night coming on, the vessels will, if their boats have not joined them, fire a gun and then a rocket-the first to call attention, the latter to give the direction; the rocket will be repeated every fifteen minutes, and the gun every half hour; keeping up their night distinguishing signals till their respective boats have returned; and when any boat joins them other than their own, to remain the night from stress of weather, fog, or any other cause, the vessel will fire two guns in quick succession.

CHARLEs WILREs,

Commanding Exploring Expedition. U. S. Ship Vincennes,

February 22d, 1839.

XXIX.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE VINCENNES.

U. S. Ship Vincennes,
Orange Harbour, Feb. 23d, 1833.

LIEUTENANT CRAvex will enforce strictly the regulations of the ship. The following officers are left on board the ship for duty, viz. Lieutenant" Carr; Lieutenant Alden; Purser Waldron; Chaplain Elliott; Acting-Master North; Passed Midshipmen Totten, Reynolds, May, and Sandford; Acting Midshipmen Clemson, Thompson, Clarke. and Elliott: and the four forward officers. 1st. Lieutenant Craven will have the men who have been transferred temporarily to this ship, stationed and quartered at the guns, dividing the officers in such divisions that they may be regularly exercised agreeably to the rules and regulations. 2d. Lieutenant Craven will have all the sails, boats, rigging, and equipments of every description, overhauled and repaired. 3d. The comfort and health of the crew will claim his particular attention, the regularity of their meals, and the avoiding unnecessary exposure to the cold, &c. 4th. The baking of bread, it is desirable should be carried into operation, in order that as small a quantity of ship's bread should be used as possible. For this purpose, the oven is to be erected on the gun-deck, and which it is anticipated by constant use will be sufficient for this purpose; if, however, from any defect, it should prove other. wise, recourse must be had to serving out flour in lieu of ship's bread.

5th. Every opportunity must be taken advantage of to supply the crew with fish, wild celery, &c., and a proportion suffered to visit the shore when the work and weather will permit, who must return in proper season, (early in the afternoon, by supper-time,) on board. 6th. The sheet cables will be kept constantly bent, and an anchorwatch duly observed, night and day; the three passed midshipmen and Mr. North, will keep the watches regularly; and the deck is never to be left without one of them, and a midshipman. 7th. When his duties will permit, he will employ his time, and that of the crew, in dredging and fishing, and all specimens will be carefully preserved, and drawings made of them. Sth. He will give all the assistance and afford every facility in his power, to aid the duties confided to Lieutenants Carr and Alden. Lieutenant Carr will attend to the astronomical and other observations (including tides) on shore, in which he will be assisted by Dr. Fox and Chaplain Elliott, so far as the former's duties will permit for this purpose. The observatory-house is to be set up on shore, and other arrangements made suitable for the accommodations of them and ten men, with a boat: this position will be in what is called Forge Cove, on the weather side, near the anchorage of this ship. Lieutenant Alden is charged with the survey and examination of the northern side of Hermit Islands, and the passages between them and Terra del Fuego, including Goree Road, and the two small islands between the two. All kelp that he may discover is to be examined; also the anchorage under Lenox and New Islands; and to make a careful examination of all other places that may seem to offer security for vessels from the prevailing winds; making notes and taking bearings that may serve for directions for vessels seeking shelter. Also the coast between False Cape Horn and Weddell Cape, which is to the westward of this harbour, being the parts of this coast that have not been sufficiently examined by Captain King. He will be accompanied by a passed midshipman on this duty : the launch is to be fitted with her deck, sails, &c., with a crew of ten men, and provisions, among which are included preserved meats, &c., for twenty days, and a small whale-boat (the Fox), or another, if deemed more suitable, a tent, and every other convenience that he may deem requisite to make the service efficient and comfortable to the party. He will proceed on this duty as soon after my departure as his preparations and the weather will permit; and great hopes are entertained that he will be enabled to complete these arduous and important duties before my return. This service is considered a hazardous one, and he will use every endeavour to avoid risking himself, men, and boats, as

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in the event of any loss of the latter, much detention would result to the after operations of the Expedition. It is hoped that Lieutenant Alden will be enabled, prior to this duty being undertaken, to finish the chart of the Rio Negro. Acting-Master North will assist Lieutenant Carr in the care and attention to the chronometers, their rate, observations, &c. It is expected that all passed midshipmen, and midshipmen, will exert themselves in carrying out the various and important duties confided to them at this anchorage.

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U. S. Ship Vincennes, Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, February 23d, 1839. SIR,You will receive on board the U. S. Ship Relief, under your command, the scientific gentlemen, who have been transferred from this ship and the Peacock, to the Relief, for scientific duty during the present cruise, and you will afford them every possible facility and accommodation to enable them to make such observations and collections as may be in their power. 1st. You will proceed without delay to the Straits of Magellan, entering by the west through Brecknock Passage, Cockburn's Channel, and Magdalene Sound. 2d. Captain King's chart of the Straits of Magellan may be depended on for all requisite information; his book of directions will also give you a full knowledge of the tides, currents, anchorages, &c.; I would recommend its attentive examination. 3d. You will keep full and complete journals of all your observations as heretofore, in regard to the soundings, temperature, &c. 4th. You will on anchoring set up tide-staves, and enter all observations agreeably to our formula; and you will continue your meteorological journal hourly. 5th. Should you experience any gales or storms, you will note their progress, from the commencement to the end, with their appearance, &c.; and any occurrence of interest will be immediately noted in your journal. 6th. You will also explore and survey Useless Bay in the Straits of Magellan, and connect your observations, &c., with Captain King's

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