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affairs, it is said, caused them to conceal the actual number of persons in their families. Of the above number, about two millions are slaves. No estimate has been made of the proportion which free blacks, mulattoes, or Indians bear to the whites or to each other. The relative number of slaves varies much in the different provinces; it is largest in Rio de Janeiro and the Minas Geraes. The population of Rio in 1810 was estimated at forty thousand, in 1838 it was two hundred and fifty thousand. In Appendix XXI. will be found a statement of the population that may be considered semi-official. The national debt of Brazil amounts to one hundred million milrees, or sixty million dollars. The revenue was about sixteen millions of dollars for 1838. It is derived principally from exports and imports. A statement of the quantities of produce exported in the above year, will be found in Appendix XXII. I was not able to obtain those of the imports. The expenditures of the government are fixed by law at about the same sum. All appropriations are specific. The imports amounted to over twenty millions of dollars. The amount of exports is variously stated. Coffee is the great staple, and more than one hundred and twenty millions of pounds were exported in 1838. It is derived from the central provinces, and the exports of it have more than doubled within the last ten years. The exports of the southern provinces are mostly confined to hides and tallow; those of the northern, to sugar, cotton, and tobacco. The trade with the United States has greatly increased. Within the last few years, from one hundred and sixty to one hundred and seventy American vessels take and bring cargoes to and from the United States, and some foreign vessels are engaged in the same trade. The consumption of American flour in Rio and the neighbouring country, has been during the same year, about one hundred and twenty thousand barrels. The state of this country and the southern republics, renders it highly necessary that a suitable naval force should be employed on this coast for the protection of our increasing trade. The currency of the country is in paper and copper. Gold and silver coins are articles of traffic, and fluctuate in value: few or none of these are in circulation. The bank issues notes of milrees, which also fluctuate. The usual value of a milree is from sixty to seventy cents. One thousand five hundred ries are equal to a dollar. Printed books of all kinds are allowed to be brought into the country. Those of foreign origin are not under censorship. The great drawback to the facility of business is the number of holidays on which the custom-house is closed, and all business suspended. These amount to about one hundred days in the year These holidays are a great alleviation to the labour of the slave. Foreign merchants reside in the country, in the neighbourhood of the city. During our stay in Rio, George Smith, a seaman, while employed on board of one of the lighters in charge of Midshipman May, fell overboard and was accidentally struck with an oar; Midshipman May, in a praiseworthy manner, jumped overboard to his relief, but did not succeed in saving him, for he sank immediately and was drowned. The delays in Rio had no effect upon the general health of the squadron, although I was fearful such might be the case, not only from the heat of the climate, but the copious draughts of aguardiente with which the foreigners supply the sailors. I found it necessary here to increase the crews of the ships, and applied to Commodore Nicolson, commander on the Brazil station, for that purpose. Thirty men were supplied the squadron. They were the most indifferent and worthless set, with two or three exceptions, we ever had on board. They were almost the only persons attached to the vessels on whom it became necessary to inflict punishment. The markets are abundantly supplied with fish, beef, and poultry. Vegetables are to be had in abundance, and are all sold in the streets. On the 26th, the Peacock and tenders returned, and brought their work up to the observatory at Enxados Island. Captain Hudson had not been able to examine the St. Thomas Shoal. Having lost five days in consequence of bad weather, it became impossible to accomplish it within the given time." During his progress, he had lost an anchor, which, when hove up, was found to have been broken off at the shank. Application was immediately made to the government for one, which request was very obligingly and promptly replied to, by desiring us to select one of a suitable size from those in the dock-yard. By the last of December we had completed all our scientific duties. These consisted of a series of pendulum observations; those for longitude by moon culminating stars; circummeridian observations for latitude; magnetic dip, intensity, diurnal variation; and others, including tides, and solar and terrestrial radiation. We now made every preparation for sea.
* The measurement of the whole distance by sound, when reduced, gave 1° 08' 52” 8” for the difference of meridians. Each distance between the vessels was the mean of about thirty observations. The longitude of Cape Frio Light, deduced from that of Enxados, which had been ascertained by moon culminating stars to be in 430 09' 06’ 67” west of Greenwich, is, therefore, 42°00' 13" 87° W. For the particulars and a diagram of this work, see Appendix XXIII.
On the 5th of January the Porpoise was ordered to drop down near a slaver, on board of which it was reported some of our men had been smuggled, to form a part of her crew. She was boarded, and though the captain denied that they were on board, after a search two were found. One of them was a black, who had himself been a slave, yet he had been induced to enter for the purpose of carrying on this nefarious traffic. This was the brig Fox, and though undoubtedly fitted for a slaver, she sailed under English colours. It was given out that she was bound for New Zealand.
On the 6th of January, every thing being ready, we weighed anchor, and dropped down the harbour. On passing the Independence, we were saluted with six cheers, which were returned with enthusiasm.
There is no difficulty in beating out of the harbour of Rio, with a ship of any class, although vessels sail generally in the morning, with the land-breeze. The breeze failing, we anchored without the harbour, and I took this opportunity of sending back the Flying-Fish, in order to recover some of our men who had absented themselves. Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold took charge of her, and effected the object without difficulty. During this time I employed the officers in measuring the height of the Sugar Loaf again for exercise.
In the evening we weighed anchor, and stood to the southward on Out COurse.
PASSAGE TO RIO NEGRO – ARRIVAL THERE-GUACHOS–EXCURSION OF THE NATU. RALISTS-SALT AND SALT LAKES-GOVERNMENT AND POPULATION.—PRODUCTIONSTARIFF-INDIANS-WANT OF ENTERPRISE—DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY-RIVER AND TIDES – CLIMATE–WEGETATION – TRADE – HARBOUR – SQUADRON DRIVEN TO SEA–DANGERS IN SURVEYING – CONVICT SETTLEMENT – COMMUNICATION WITH BUENOS AYRES – DEPARTURE FROM RIO NEGRO – STATEN LAND – STRAITS OF LE MAIRE–APPEARANCE OF TERRA DEL FUEGO—ITS HARBOUR—PARHELION.—MIRAGE– MEETING WITH THE RELIEF—HER DEPARTURE FROM RIO-CURRENT—RIO PLATA— CAPE RAZA–CAPE ST. JOSEPH-CAPE THREE POINTS-DREDGING-BELLACO ROCKScAPE st. Diego — Good SUCCESS BAY – CAPTAIN KINGS SAILING DIRECTIONS – NATIVES – INTERCOURSE WITH THEM – BOTANY–GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION – NEW island–ITs POSITION.—ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR–EMPLOYMENTs.