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the arguments should be given, the authoritative language of the nation's highest tribunal is certainly preferable to a statement by a commentator of his understanding of the court's ruling or reasoning

The author desires to make especial acknowledgment of the very great assistance which he has received from Hon. John C. Rose, United States District Judge, ard Dr. Frank J. Goodnow, Professor of Constitutional and Administrative Law at Columbia University. Both of these friends have generously spared the time to read this treatise in the proof. That they have not, however, committed themselves to all of the positions assumed herein, hardly needs to be said.

The author wishes also to express generally his debt to the various law magazines published in this country. These journals are an honor to American legal scholarship, and to the articles contained in them the author owes more than he has been able specifically to acknowledge.

In conclusion, it may be added that, where appropriate, the author has repeated language used by him in an earlier and briefer work entitled The American Constitutional System.

The work as a whole is based upon lectures delivered during recent years to the graduate students in Political Science at the Johns Hopkins University. June, 1910.

W. W. W.

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statute

11. The force of contemporaneous or long continued legislative

interpretation

12. Legislative and executive practice not absolutely binding.

13. Extrinsic evidence

14. Technical terms

15. The interpretative value of debates in constitutional con-

ventions .

16. The Federalist

17. History of the times.

18. The interpretative value of legislative debates.

19. Resort to the preamble for purpose of construction..

20. “We, the People"

21. “Constitution"..

22. Common defense and general welfare

23. The Constitution is to be construed as a whole.

24. So-called “ natural” or “ unwritten constitutional law's

have no constructive force.....

25. The “spirit” of the Constitution.

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CHAPTER IV.

THE SUPREMACY OF FEDERAL AUTHORITY,

SECTION 42. Federal supremacy

43. The States may not be coerced.

44. Conclusion

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CHAPTER V.

THE MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL SUPREMACY: THE FREEDOM OF FEDERAL

AGENCIES FROM INTERFERENCE OR CONTROL BY THE STATES.

SECTION 45. State taxation of federal governmental agencies..

46. Property of federal agencies may be taxed.

47. State taxation of federal franchises.

48. State taxation of patent rights....

49. State taxation of federally licensed occupations.

50. State taxation of federal salaries

51. State taxation of federal property.

52. State taxation of federal scrurities.

53. Income from federal securities exempt from state taxation.

54. State taxation of circulating notes of national banks...

55. State taxation of bequests to the United States..

56. State taxation of national banks

57. Federal taxation of state agencies.

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CHAPTER SII.

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