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Chairman Bloom. I am very happy to say, Mr. Martin, that Mrs. Rogers agrees with you also.

Mr. MARTIN. I am delighted at this. Dr. Eaton. Mr. Chairman, we have one more reason for having faith in Massachusetts.

Chairman Bloom. Yes, Dr. Eaton.

Mr. MARTIN. Because the distinguished Representative of New Jersey's ancestors came from there.

Dr. EATON. For which I am very grateful.

Chairman BLOOM. Thank you very much, gentlemen. Representative Rolph.


Mr. ROLPH. Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, I want to say that it is a decided privilege and a pleasure to be here today and to attend a meeting that is under the chairmanship of a former San Franciscan. There are people who do not know that Sol Bloom lived in San Francisco years ago. The people of San Francisco are very proud of the job he has been doing here in the House of Representatives, and it is an honor and a privilege to serve with him.

The people of San Francisco, Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, are very much in favor of this legislation.

Last June a great mass meeting was held in our Civic Auditorium, and 11,000 people attended that meeting. The gathering endorsed å resolution which I would like to read. This resolution represents the sentiment not only of the people of San Francisco but of the entire State of California. With your permission, Mr. Chairman, I would just like to read these resolutions. They were adopted Thursdav evening, June 17, 1943. They were offered by State Senator Jack Shelley, who represents the San Francisco district in the California Legislature. [Reading:]

This assembly, representing a great cross section of citizens of northern California, convened in the Civic Auditorium of San Francisco on June 17, 1943, voices its sympathy and encouragement to the persecuted peoples under the yoke of Nazi oppression. We honor the memory of the dead; we honor the memory of the innocent and helpless martyrs of all peoples and the millions of Jews who fell victims to a madness unparalleled in history.

Whereas silence and inaction on our part in the face of such monstrous conditions would betray the sacred obligations of brotherhood, as well as the humanitarian ideals to which the United Nations are dedicated; and

Whereas the holocaust of mass murder of civilian populations, especially Jews, continues unabated: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That1. The United Nations should approach neutral governments with a view to having them intercede for the release of Jewish and other minority victims; and

2. The United Nations should, without delay, take steps to designate and establish a number of sanctuaries in Allied and neutral countries to accommodate substantial numbers of Hitler's victims and to serve as havens of refuge for those whose release from captivity may be arranged, or who may find their way to freedom through efforts of their own.

3. We urge that the doors of Palestine be opened to Jewish immigration.

4. The administration of immigration laws to the United States be liberalized to permit the filling of the established quotas.

That resolution was adopted unanimously, and I am very pleased to insert it in the record with my enthusiastic endorsement.

Recently I made an address on the floor of the House of Representatives along the lines of this legislation, and read a resolution which was submitted by the Men's Club of the Temple Sherith Israel. Since that time I have received a number of similar resolutions. One, from San Francisco Lodge, No. 21, of B'nai B'rith I should like to insert in the record.

(The resolution referred to is as follows:)

Whereas the White Paper issued by the British Government in May 1939 under the leadership of Prime Minister Chamberlain stops the immigration of Jews into Palestine after March 31, 1944, and imposes unfair restrictions on the rights of Jews in Palestine; and

Whereas the ruthless persecution of the Jewish people in Europe and the resultant existence of hordes of refugees in Nazi-occupied countries has clearly demonstrated the need for a haven for the large numbers who have become homeless because of this persecution; and

Whereas such White Paper is a vestige of an appeasement policy which has been repudiated by Great Britain under the leadership of Winston Churchill and by the other United Nations; and

Whereas the terms of said White Paper in closing immigration constitute & flagrant breach of the provisions of the mandate accepted by Great Britain as to Palestine, which provisions were approved by the Congress of the United States together with 52 nations; and

Whereas millions of lives are now dedicated to assure the preservation of freedom for all peoples, and equality of rights throughout the world: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, By San Francisco Lodge, No. 21, B'nai B'rith, that it calls upon the present government of Great Britain to abrogate immediately and before the effective date of March 31, 1944, the White Paper and that it requests the Government of the United States through its State Department, its Senate and its House of Represent$tives to urge that the doors of Palestine may be kept open for free entry of Jews into that country and that there shall not be any restrictions on the opportunity for land purchase or colonization in Palestine.


SAMUEL L. FENDEL, Secretary. Dated: JANUARY 24, 1944.

Mr. Rolph. I also request permission to give the names of other organizations that have endorsed this proposition.

Chairman BLOOM. Give anything that you wish to have inserted in the record to the stenographer, and, if you will, just read the other names of those from whom you have received messages.

Mr. ROLPH. I will comply with that; yes, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman Bloom. Without objection it is so ordered.




Resolutions San Francisco Emergency Committee for the Abrogation of the White Paper,

Eugene Block, executive secretary, 110 Sutter Street, Room 706. Beth Israel Sisterhood, 1839 Geary Street. Temple Sherith Israel Men's Club, California and Webster Streets. Zionist Organization of America, 369 Pine Street, San Francisco. San Francisco Chapter, National Home for Jewish Children, 733 Thirty-first

Avenue. Jewish Educational Society, William Weiss, secretary, 745 Buchanan Street. Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home Society, 1600 Scott Street. B'nai B'rith, California Lodge, No. 163, 1087 Market Street. B'nai B'rith, San Francisco Lodge, No. 21, 703 Market, 1607 Central Tower. National Home for Jewish Children, San Francisco Chapter, 733 Thirty-first


Telegrams Mrs. Louis Bloch; Mrs. Jessie Gans; Mrs. Henry Sahlein; Mrs. Carl Jacob;

Mrs. Maurice Heppner, president, San Francisco chapter of Hadassah; Prof. Sam Lepkowsky; Prof. Zev Hassid; Prof. Michael Goodman; Prof. Ben Bernstein; Prof. Jacob Traum; Mrs. Richard M. Neustadt; Mrs. Henry Harris.

Mr. Rolph. I sincerely hope that this legislation is voted out of your committee unanimously, and that it passes the House unanimously.

Chairman BLOOM. The Chair would like to ask that there be no demonstrations by guests of the committee. It is something that we prefer not to have, if you do not mind.

Chairman Bloom. Representative Talbot, of Connecticut.



Mr. TALBOT. Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, I want to take only a minute of your time. First, I would like to express my own approval of this resolution, and I hope that it comes out of the committee unanimously.

Second, I would like to express the appreciation of Mr. Compton, the sponsor of this resolution, who, unfortunately, was called back to New Haven last night, and who has asked me to express to you, Mr. Chairman, his regrets, and his hope that on some other day he might appear before this committee.

Third, I would like to present and have included in the record some telegrams from Jewish citizens in my district, representing some five thousand or six thousand people in the State of Connecticut. I sincerely trust that this resolution will be approved unanimously.

Mr. Johnson. Will the gentleman yield for a question? Chairman Bloom. Mr. Johnson. Mr. JOHNSON. Do you mean to incorporate the body of all of those telegrams in the record, or just the names of the senders? I was thinking of the size of the record of you put them all in.

Mr. TALBOT. I will say to the gentleman that I have placed on top of the pile three or four telegrams which I think should be included in the record. As to the rest of them they are similar and the names would be sufficient.

Chairman Bloom. The Chair would like to state that all telegrams and petitions and matters of that kind will be left to the discretion of the committee. After they have examined them they will determine what to do with the telegrams, as to whether they shall go into the record.

Mrs. ROGERS. We have all had a good many telegrams on this matter.

Chairman BLOOM. Yes. Mr. JOHNSON. If we put in all of the telegrams the size of the record might be unduly large and repetitious.

Chairman BLOOM. That will await further discretion of the committee. Congressman Eberharter, of Pennsylvania. Mr. Eberharter is a former member of this committee.



Mr. EBERHARTER. Mr. Chairman, and gentleman of the committee, I appreciate the opportunity of appearing before this very distinguished committee, a committee which will have before it in the next few years to come the most important questions that will come before the Congress. I am happy that my service on this committee for some years which terminated just a few months ago, has given me an opportunity to know and value its true worth and also to know that any of the problems that do come before it will be considered in a nonpartisan and statesmanlike manner, having simply the best interests of the country in mind.

I am thankful for this opportunity to make a few extemporaneous remarks in respect to these resolutions. Members of the committee will recall that on a previous occasion in a public hearing this very subject came up and at that time I expressed my interest in it and my hearty approval of the principle that is set forth in these resolutions.

I could, of course, Mr. Chairman, develop a very lengthy argument this morning in support of my reasons for being very vitally interested in the passage of these resolutions, but there are many others who will appear before the committee who have practically lived with this subject for many years, and I know that they are more able to present logically what I deem to be unanswerable reasons why this committee and the Congress should pass these resolutions unanimously.

The chairman, of course, I feel is to be commended very highly for his wisdom and foresight in having prepared in advance for study by members of the committee this pamphlet which contains the important and relevant facts relative to this very difficult problem, and yet it is not so difficult but that if it were tackled in the right way I believe it could be solved to the satisfaction of the world and all mankind.

Mr. JOHNSON. Will the gentleman yield for a question?
Chairman BLOOM. Mr. Johnson.

Mr. JOHNSON. I want to concur in what you said with reference to the chairman's compilation of these documents in this pamphlet, and it is not only valuable for the use of this committee, but it has historical data and knowledge in it which will cause many of us to want to preserve it.

Mr. EBERHARTER. Thank you, Mr. Johnson. In that connection I might add that we have so often seen the chairman, Mr. Bloom, go above and beyond the call of duty in this manner that we almost come to expect such extra effort on his part as a matter of course. He has been extraordinarily diligent and conscientious in seeing that the committee is fully informed on the matters under consideration, particularly those somewhat akin to the subject now before you, while at the same time exhibiting and acting in a strictly impartial manner. The committee is fortunate in this respect, as are the witnesses who have appeared in the past and will appear in the future.

I think I might now call particular attention of the committee to the fact that when the White Paper was issued in 1939 there was very, very strong opposition to it in the Parliament of Great Britain, and that opposition was heard and presented what I deem to be very compelling arguments as to the wrong position then being taken by

the dominant party in Great Britain at that time, and if I might be permitted, I would just like to read a few lines from the address on May 23, 1939, in the House of Commons by the Right Honorable Stanley Morrison when he was opposing the approval of this White Paper in the House of Commons.

Chairman BLOOM. Will you give the page number from which you are reading?

Mr. EBERHARTER. This is on page 70 of the pamphlet to which I have referred. Speaking of this White Paper he said:

If we do this thing today we shall have done a thing which is dishonorable to our good name, which is discreditable to our capacity to govern, and which is dangerous to British security, to peace, and to the economic interest of the world in general and of our own country. Moreover, it will not work,

Mr. CHIPERFIELD. Will the gentlemen yield at that point?
Mr. EBERHARTER. Yes; I shall be glad to.
Chairman Bloom. Mr. Chiperfield.

Mr. CHIPERFIELD. Do you feel, then, that the White Paper is in violation of the convention between the United States and Great Britain, and especially article 7, where it says:

Nothing contained in the present convention shall be affected by any modification which may be made in the terms of the mandate, as recited above, unless such modification shall have been assented to by the United States.

Mr. EBERHARTER. I think it is absolutely in violation of the mandate under which Great Britain was given mandatory powers over Palestine. I think it is not only in violation of the mandate of the Council of the League of Nations, but it is also in violation of the convention to which the gentleman has just referred. I think it is absolutely illegal. Other gentlemen will present in a very clear and concise manner proof of the illegality of this White Paper by Great Britain.

I believe this, Mr. Chairman, that the passage of these resolutions 1 by the Congress will be helpful to Great Britain itself in the solving of this problem.

I also believe that the passage of these resolutions by the Congress of the United States is a proper move on our part, particularly in view of the terms of the convention of 1925 between Great Britain and the United States, and of the patent illegality of the White Paper, and I think it is proper also because the United States is looked upon as a leader in the world, insofar as humanitarian principles are concerned. It is the humane and moral thing for this country to do toward solving this great problem.

I think the whole world will approve of the passage of these resolutions, and the whole world will also approve of the setting up of not only what may be called a Jewish national home in Palestine, but also of the commencement of moves for the ultimate establishment of a Jewish commonwealth in Palestine, which will fit in with the aspirations of the Jews of the entire world.

Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman Bloom. Thank you, Mr. Eberharter.
Congressman Celler, of New York.

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