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ing hours are preferred. Special days and evenings are assigned, each season, for calls of respect, —one morning and evening a week being usually assigned for this purpose.

Receptions are held, during the winter season, geneally once a week, between eight and ten o'clock in the evening, at which time guests are expected in full dress, and are presented by the usher.

The President holds public receptions on the first of January and the fourth of July, when the Diplomatic Corps present themselves in court costume, and the officers of the Army and Navy in full uniform. The Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of the government are received between the hours of eleven and twelve, after which, the Diplomatic Corps, officers of the Army and Navy, and civilians en masse.

The President accepts no invitations to dinner, and makes no calls or visits of ceremony; but is at liberty to visit, without ceremony, at his pleasure.

An invitation to dinner at the President's must be accepted, in writing, and a previous engagement cannot take precedence.

The address of the Executive, in conversation, is, Mr. President.

The Vice-President.--A visit from the Vice-President iş due the President, on the meeting of Congress. He is entitled to the first visit from all others, which he may return by card or in person.

The Supreme Court.The Judges call upon the President and Vice-President annually, upon the opening of the court, and on the first day of January.

The Cabinet.—Members of the President's Cabinet

call upon the President on New Year's day and the fourth of July. First calls are also due from them, by card or in person, to the Vice-President, Judges of the Supreme Court, Senators, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, on the meeting of Congress.

The Senate.–Senators call, in person, upon the President and Vice-President, on the meeting of Congress and first day of January; and upon the President on the fourth of July, if Congress is in session. They also call in person or by card, upon the Judges of the Supreme Court, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, on the meeting of Congress.

The Speaker of the House of Representatives.--The Speaker calls upon the President on the meeting of Congress, first day of January, and the fourth of July, if Congress is in session. The first call is also due from him to the Vice-President, on the meeting of Congress.

The House of Representatives.- Members of the House of Representatives call, in person, upon the President, on the first day of January, and upon the Speaker of the House at the opening of each session. They also call, by card or in person, upon the President on the fourth of July, if Congress is in session, and upon the President, Vice-President, Judges of the Supreme Court, Cabinet officers, Senators, Speaker of the House, and foreign Ministers, soon after the opening of each session of Congress.

Foreign Ministers.—The Diplomatic Corps call upon the President on the first day of January, and upon the Vice-President, Cabinet officers, Judges of the Supreme Court, Senators, and Speaker of the House, by card or in person, on the first opportunity after presenting their

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credentials to the President. They also make an annual call of ceremony, by card or in person, upon the VicePresident, Judges of the Supreme Court, Senators, and Speaker of the House, soon after the meeting of Congress.

The Court of Claims.—The Judges of the Court of Claims call, in person, upon the President, on the first of January and the fourth of July. They also make first visits to Cabinet officers, and the Diplomatic Corps, and call, by card or in person, upon the Judges of the Supreme Court, Senators, Speaker and members of the House, soon after the meeting of Congress.

The Families of Officials.The rules which govern officials are also applicable to their families, in determining the conduct of social intercourse.

CHAPTER VIII.

CITY OF WASHINGTON.

In order to preserve unity in the discussion of our theme, it became necessary to record the most important events in the history of the city under the caption of History of the Seat of Government (Chapter II.); by turning to page 43, therefore, the reader will find what in strictness may be regarded as a portion of the present chapter.

After the conclusion of peace between the United States and Great Britain, in 1814, the necessity for the rebuilding, in the city of Washington, of the edifices of the national government was introduced into the deliberations of the American Congress. An effort to remove the seat of government from its present location was introduced, but met with the fate of similar and subsequent propositions, and resulted in a signal failure. From that time onward, except during the periods of excitement caused by prospective changes of political power growing out of several presidential elections, the value of real estate in the city has gradually increased. Physically, the city has constantly improved, from the grading of streets, and consequent drainage of swamps and pools, until it has become one of the most salubrious cities in the United States. At the commencement of its corporate history, Washington was governed by a board of Commissioners; next by a Superintendent, who was the prototype of the Commissioner of Public Buildings; then by a Mayor appointed by the President; and afterwards, under a charter conceived in a more liberal spirit, by a Mayor elected by the people every two years, and by two branches of the municipal council.

We feel compelled, by common dictates of justice, to explode the fallacy of two ideas which have been generally entertained. It is supposed that Washington, or the residents of Washington, have spurned the moral laws which govern all well-ordered and Christian communities; and the feeblest attempts at wit ever perpetrated have attempted to cast ridicule upon the magnificent proportions of a political capital, which was designed upon a scale drawn from the potential necessities of a nation whose greatness even the present generation has only faintly conceived. It is well to bear in mind that the march of the city in population and magnificence has kept steady lockstep with the advance of national power and population. With regard to morals, it is not to be denied that Washington is the abode of a legion of foul vices; but this is a matter, not of reproach to its permanent residents, but of shame to every patriot; and will be cured when The PeoPLE of every large city, and of each remote hamlet, shall have acquired a proper reverence for their liberties, a due conviction of the sanctity of their political duties, and shall have determined to exercise a vigilant and inflexible purpose to commit their interests to none but the wisest, best, and purest of their fellow-citizens. When this shall have been attained, Washington will cease to bear an undeserved reproach, and will have less cause to regret the presence of the camp-followers of Congress.

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