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"This is the house where the sun never dawns, "The bird of night sits screaming o'er its roof, “Grim spectres sweep along the horrid gloom, “And nought is heard but wailings and lamentings." STEEVENS.

274. Should straight fall mad, or else die suddenly.] This is said in fabulous physiology, of those that hear groan of the mandrake torn up. JOHNSON.

The same thought and almost the same expressions

occur in Romeo and Juliet.


296. And with that painted hope she braves your mightiness,] So, in that exquisite stanza which opens Love in a Village:

Hope, thou nurse of young desire,
"Fairy promiser of joy,

“ Painted vapour, glow-worm fire,

"Temperate sweet, that ne'er canst cloy."


397. A precious ring,] There is supposed to be a gem called a carbuncle, which emits not reflected but native light. Mr. Boyle believes the reality of its existence. JOHNSON.

So, in the Gesta Romanorum, history the sixth : "He farther beheld and saw a carbuncle in the hall that lighted all the house.”

Again, in Lydgate's Description of King Priam's Palace, 1. 2.

"And for most chefe all dirkeness to confound, "A carbuncle was set as kyng of stones all,

"To recomforte and gladden, all the hall.



"And it to enlumine in the black night "With the freshness of his ruddy light." Again, in the Muse's Elysium, by Drayton : "Is that admired, mighty stone,

"The carbuncle that's named;

"Which from it such a flaming light

"And radiancy ejecteth,

"That in the very darkest night

"The eye to it directeth."

Chaucer, in the Romaunt of the Rose, attributes the same properties to the carbuncle :

“Soche light ysprang out of the stone.”


489. If I do dream, 'would all my wealth would make me!] If this be a dream, I would give all my possessions to be delivered from it by waking.



Line 17.

-Two ancient urns,] Oxford editor.

Vulg. two ancient ruins.

.67. spight.



in thy father's sight?] We should read WARBURTON.

-I'll chop off my hands too;] Perhaps we

should read:

or chop off, &c.

It is not easy to discover how Titus, when he had chopp'd off one of his hands, would have been able to have chopp'd off the other. STEEVENS.

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91. It was my deer ;——— -] The play upon deer and dear has been used by Waller, who calls a lady's girdle,

"The pale that held my lovely deer.”


169. Writing destruction on the enemies' castle?] Thus all the editions. But Mr. Theobald, after ridiculing the sagacity of the former editors at the expence of a great deal of awkward mirth, corrects it to casque; and this, he says, he'll stand by: And the Oxford editor, taking his security, will stand by it too. But what a slippery ground is critical confidence! Nothing could bid fairer for a right conjecture; yet'tis all imaginary. A close helmet, which covered the whole head, was called a castle, and, I suppose, for that very reason. Don Quixote's barber, at least as good a critick as these editors, says (in Shelton's translation, 1612), "I know what is a helmet, and what a morrion, and what a close castle, and other things touching warfare.” Lib. iv. cap. 18. And the original, celada de encaxe, has something of the same signification. Shakspere uses the word again in Troilus and Cressida:

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"Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head."


"Dr. Warburton's proof (says the author of the Revisal) rests wholly on two mistakes, one of a printer,

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the other of his own. In Shelton's Don Quixote the word close castle is an error of the press for a close casque, which is the exact interpretation of the Spanish original, celada de encaxe; this Dr. Warburton must have seen, if he had understood Spanish as well as he pretends to do. For the primitive caxa, from whence the word, encaxe, is derived, signifies a box, or coffer; but never a castle. His other proof is taken from this passage in Troilus and Cressida :

and Diomede

"Stand fast, and wear a castle on thy head." Wherein Troilus doth not advise Diomede to wear a helmet on his head, for that would be poor indeed, as he always wore one in battle; but to guard his head with the most impenetrable armour, to shut it up even in a castle, if it were possible, or else his sword should reach it.

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After all this reasoning, however, it appears, that a castle did actually signify a close helmet. So, in Holinshed, Vol. II. p. 815: Then suddenlie with great noise of trumpets entered Sir Thomas Knevet in a castell of cole blacke, and over the castell was written, The dolorous castell, and so he and the carle of Essex, &c. ran their courses with the king,” &c. STEEVENS. 282. Lavinia, thou shalt be employed in these things;] Thus the folio, 1623. The quarto 1611 thus:

And Lavinia thou shalt be employ'd in these



308 This scene, which does not contribute any thing to the action, yet seems to have the same author with the rest, is omitted in the quarto of 1611, but found in the folio of 1623.. JOHNSON.

307. And cannot passionate, &c.] This obsolete

verb is likewise found in Spenser:

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"Great pleasure mixed with pitiful regard,

"That godly king and queen did passionate." STEEVENS.

339. -mesh'd upon her cheeks :] A very coarse allusion to brewing.


346.by still practice-] By constant or continual practice.

JOHNSON. 361. a father and mother?] Mother perhaps should be omitted, as the following lines speak only in the singular number, and Titus most probably confines his thoughts to the sufferings of a father.

STEEVENS. 363. And buz lamenting doings in the air?] Sad doings for any unfortunate event, is a common though not an elegant expression.


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