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my lord.

Appear more wise and modest to the world. the First and Second Parts of Henry the Fourth. Ch. Just. And so they are,

Perhaps no author has ever, in two plays, afforded P. John. The king bath call'd his parliament, so much delight. The great events are interesting,

for the fate of kingdoms depends upon them; the Ch. Just. He hath.

slighter occurrences are diverting, and, except one P. John. I will lay odds,-that, ere this year or two, sulliciently probable; the incidents are expire,

multiplied with wonderful fertility of invention; We bear our civil swords, and native fire, and the characters diversified with the uimost As far as France: I heard a bird so sing, nicety of discernment, and the profoundest skill in Whose music, to my thinking, pleas'd the king. the nature of man. Come, will you hence ?

(Exeunl. The prince, who is the hero both of the comic

and tragic part, is a young man of great abilities, EPILOGUE,

and violent passions, whose sentiments are right,

though his actions are wrong: whose virtues are SPOKEN BY A DANCER.

obscured by negligence, and whose understanding FIRST, my fear; then, my court'sy; last, my is dissipated by levity. In his idle hours he speech. My fear is, your displeasure; my court'sy, rather loose thun wicked; and when the occasion my duty; and my speech, to beg your pardons. If forces out his latent qualilies, he is great without you look for a good speech now, you undo me: for effort, and brave without lunult. The trifler is what I have to say, is of mine own muking; and roused into a hero, and the hero again reposes in what, indeed, I should say, will, I doubt, prove the triller. The character is great, original, and jusl. mine own marring. But to the purpose, and so to Percy is a rugged soldier, choleric and quarrelthe venture. --Be it known to you, (as it is very some, and has only the soldier': virtucs, generosily well,) I was lately here in the end of a displeasing and courage. play, to pray your patience for it, and to promise But Falsiafl! unimitatci, unimitable Falstaff! you a beiter. I did mean, indeed, to pay you with how shall I describe thee? thou compound of sense this; which is like an ill venture, it come unluck- and vicc; of sense which may be admired, but not ily home, I break, and you, my gentle creditors, esteemed; of vice which may be despised, but Jose. Here, I promiscu you, I would be, and here haruly detested. Falstaff is a character loaded I commit my body to your mercies: bate me some, with faults, and with those faults which naturally and I will pay you some, and, as most debtors do, produce contempt. He is a thief and a glutton, a promise you intinitely.

coward and a boaster; always ready to cheat the If my tongue cannot entreat you to acquit me, weak, and prey upon the poor; to terrify the timowill you command me to use my legs? and yet rous, and insult the defenceless. Al once obsequithat were but light payment,-to dance out of your ous and malignant, he satirizes in their absence debt. But a good conscience will make any possi-those whom he lives by flattering. He is familiar ble satisfaction, and so will l. All the gentlewo- with the prince only as an agent of vice: but of men here have forgiven me; if the gentlemen will this familiarity he is so proud, as not only to be not, then the gentlemen do not agree with the gen- supercilious and haughty with common men, but tlewomen, which was never seen before in such an to think his interest of importance to the duke of assembly.

Lancaster. Yet the man ihus corrupt, thus despiOne word more, I beseech you. If you be not cable, makes himself necessary to the prince that too much cloyed with fat meat, our humble author despises him, by the most pleasing of all qualities, will continue the story, with sir John in it, and perpetual gaiety; by an unfailing power of exciting make you merry with fair Katharine of Fr:ince: laughter, which is ihe more freely indulged, as his where, for any thing I know, Falstaff shall die of a wit is not of the splendid or ambitious kind, but sweat, unless already he be killed with your hard consists in easy scapes and sallies of levity, which opinions ; for Oldcastle died a martyr, and this is make sport, but raise no envy. It must be obnot the man. My tongue is weary; when my legs served, ihat he is stained with no enormous or sane are too, I will bid you good night': and so kneel guinary crimes, so that his licentiousness is not so down before you ;-but, indeed, to pray for the offensive but that it may be borne for his mirth. queen.

The moral to be drawn from this representation is, that no man is more dangerous than he that, with

a will to corrupt, hath the power to please, and I fancy cvery reader, when he ends this play, that neither wit nor honesty ought to think themcries out with Desdemona, 'O most lame and im- selves safe with such a companion, when they see

JOHNSON. potent conclusion ! As this play was not, to our Henry seduced by Falstaff. knowledge, divided into acts by the author, I could be content' to conclude it with the death of Henry called the First and Second Parts of Henry tắe

Mr. Upton thinks these two plays improperly the Fourth :

Fourth. The first play ends, he savs, with the "In that Jerusalem shall Harry die.'

peaceful settlement of Henry in the kingdom by These scenes, which now make the fifth act of ihe defeat of the rebels. This is hardly true; for Henry the Fourth, might then be the first of Henry the rebels are not yet finally suppressed. The the Fifth; but the truth is, that they do not unite second, he tel!s us, shows Henry the Fifth in the very commodiously to either play.' When these various lights of a good-natured rake, till

, on his plays were represented, I believe they ended as they father's death, he assumes a more manly character. are now ended in the books; but Shakspeare scems This is true; but this representation gives us no to have designed that the whole series of action, idea of a dramatic action. These two plays will from the beginning of Richard the Second, to the appear to every reader, who shall peruse them end of Henry the Fifth, should be considered by without ambition of critical discoveries, to be so the reader as one work upon one plan, only broken connected, that the second is merely a sequel ta into parts by the necessity of exhibition. the first; to be two, only because they are toa None of Shakspeare's plays are more read than long to be one.




King Henry the Finthe

Charles the Sixth, king of France. Duke of Gloster, brothers to the king.

Lewis, the dauphin. Duke of Bedford, 1

Dukes of Burgundy, Orleans, and Bourbon. Mike of Exeter, unde to the king.

The Constable of France. Duke of York, cousin to the king.

Rainbures, and Grandpre, French lords.
Earls of Salisbury, Westmoreland, and Warwick. Governor of Harfleur. Montjoy, a French herald.
Archbishop of Canterbury.

Ambassadors to the king of England.
Bishop of Ely.
Earl of Cambridge,

Isabel, queen of France.
Lord Scroor,

conspiralors against the king. Katharine, daughter of Charles and Isabel. Sir Thomas Grey,

Alice, a lady allending on the princess Kalharine. Sir Thomas Erpingham, Gower, Fluellen, Mac- Quickly, Pistol's wife, a hostess.

morris, Jainy, officers in king Henry's army. Lords, ladies, officers, French and English soldiers, Bates, Court, Williains, solitiers in the same.

messengers, and attendanis. Nym, Bardolph, Pistol, formerly servants lo Fulstafi, non soldiers in the same.

The Scene, at the beginning of the play, lies in Boy, servant lo them. Allerald. Chorus. England; but afterwards, wholly in France.

Enler Chorus.


SCENE I.-London. In anti-chamber in the O, for a nuse of fire, that would uscend

King's palace, Enter the Archbishop of CanterThe brightest heaven of invention!

bury, and Bishop of Ely. A kingdoin for a stage, princes to act, And monarchs to behold the swelling scene!

Then should the warlike Harry, like himself, MY lord, I'll tell you,—that self bill is urg'd,
Assume the port of Mars; and, at his heels, Which, the eleventh year o'the last king's reign
Leash'd in, like hounds, should famine, sword, and was like, and had indeed against us pass'd,

But that the scambling and unquiet time
Crouch for einployment. But pardon, gentles all, Did push it out of further question.“
The flat unraised spirit, that hath dar'd,

Ely. But how, my lord, shall we resist it now? On this unworthy scaffold, to bring forth

Cant. It must be thought on. If it pass against us, So great an object: Can this cockpit hold We lose the better half of our possession: The vasty fields of France? or may we cram For all the ternporal lands, which men devout Within this wooden 0,' the very casques, 2 By testament have given to the church, That did aflright the air at Agincourt?

Would they strip from us; being valued thus,0, pardon! since a crooked figure may

As much as would maintain, to the king's honour, Attest, in little place, a million ;

Full fifteen earls, and fifteen hundred knights ; And let us, cyphers to this great accompt, Six thousand and two hundred good esquires ; On your imaginary forcesz work:

And, to relief of lazars, and weak age, Suppose, within the girdle of these walls

or indigent fuiut souls, past corporal toil, Are now ccnfin'd two mighty inonarchies, A hundred alms-houses, right well supplied; Whosc high-upreared and abutting fronts And to the coflers of the king beside, The perilous, narrow occan parts asunder. A thousand pounds by the year: Thus runs the bill, Piece out our imperfections with your thoughts : Ely. This would drink deep. Into a thousand parts divide one man,


"Twould drink the cup and all. And inake imaginary puissance:

Ely. But what prevention ? Think, when we talk of horses, that you see them Cant. The king is full of grace, and fair regard. Printing their proud hoofs i'the receiving earth : Ely. And a true lover of the holy church. For 'lis your thoughts that now must deck our Cant. The courses of his youth promis'd it not. kings,

The breath no sooner len his father's body, Carry them here and there; jumping o'er times ; But that his wildness, mortified in him, Turning the accomplishments of many years Seem'd to die 0 : yea, at that very moment, Into an hour-glass; For the which supply, Consideration like an angel came, Admit me Chorus to this history;

And whipp'd the offending Adam out of him; Who, prologue-like, your humble patience pray, Leaving his body as a paradise, Gently to hear, kindly to judge, our play. To envelop and contain celestial spirits.

Never was such a sudden scholar made: (1) An allusion to the circular form of the theatre,

|(2) Helmets. (3) Powers of fancy, (4) Debate:

Never came reformation in a flood,

SCENE 11.-The same. A room of state in the With such a heady current, scouring faults; same. Enter King Henry, Gloster, Bedford, Nor never Hydra-headed wilfulness

Exeter, Warwick, Westmoreland, und attend So soon did lose his seat, and all at once,

As in this king.
We are blessed in the change.

K. Hen. Where is my gracious lord of Canter

bury ? Cant. Hear him bui reason in divinity,

Exe. Not here in presence. And, all-admiring, with an inward wish

K. Hen. Send for him, good uncle. You would desire, the king were made a prelate:

West. Shall we call in the ambassador, my liege? Hear him debate of commonwealth aflairs,

K. Hen. Not yet, my cousin ; we would be se You would say,-it hath been all-in-all his study :

solv'd, List' his discourse of war, and you shall hear

Before we hear him, of some things of weighit, A fearful battle render'd you in music:

That task our thoughts, concerning us and France. Turn him to any cause of policy, 'The Gordian knot of it he will unloosc,

Enter the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishop Fainiliar as his garter ; that, when he speaks,

of Ely. The air, a charter'd libertine, is still,

Cant. God, and his angels, guard your sacred And the muite wonder lurkeih in meii's ears,

throne, To stcal his sweet and honeyed sentences; And make you long become it! So that the art and practic part of life

K. Hen.

Sure, we thank you Must be the mistress to this theoric ::

My learned lord, we pray you to proceed;
Which is a wonder, how his grace should glean it, And justiy and religiously unfold,
Since his addiction was to courses vain :

Why the law Salique, that they have in France,
Ilis companiegs unletter'd, rude, and shallow; Or should, or should not, bar us in our claim.
llis hours till'd up with riots, banqueis, sports; And God forbid, my dear and faithful lord,
And never noted in him any study,

That you should fashion, wrest, or bow your reading, Any retirement, any sequestration

Or nicely charge your undersianding soul From open haunts and popularity:

With opening iilles miscreate, whose right Ely. The strawberry grows underneath the net. Suits not in native colours with the truth; tle;

For God doth know, how many, now in health, And wholesome berries thrive and ripen best, Shall drop their blood in approbation Neighbour'd by fruit of baser quality ;

Of what your reverence shall incite us to: And so the prince obscur'd his contemplation Therefore take heed how you impaun our person, Under the veil of' wildness; which, no doubt, How you awake the sleeping sword of war; Grew lilie the summer grass, fastest by night, We charge you in the name of God, take heed : Unsecui, yet crescives in his faculty.

For never two such kingdoms did contend, Cunt. Il must be so: for mircles are ccas'd; Without much fall of blood ; whose guiltless drops And therefore we nuust needs admit the mcans, Arc every one a wo, a sore complaint, How thugs are perfected.

Gainst him, whose wrongs give edge unto the swords Ely.

But, my good lord, That make such waste in brief mortalily. How now for mitigation of this bill

Under this conjuration, speak, my lord: Crg'd by the commons ? Doth his majesty And we will hear, 1!!!and believe in heart, Incline io it, or mu?

That what you speak is in your conscience waslid Canl.

IIe seems indifferent ; As pure as sin with baptism. Or, rather, swaying more upon our part,

Cunt. Then hear me, gracious sovereign,-and Than cherishing the exhibiters against us:

you peers, ror I have made an offer to his majesty,

That owe your lives, your faith, and services, Upon our spiritual convocation ;

To this imperial throne ;-- There is no bar And in regard of' causes now in hand,

To make against your highness' claim to France, Which I have opeu'd to his grace at large, But this, which they produce from Pharamond, As touching France,-lo give a greater suin In terram Salicant mulieres succedant, Than ever at one time the clergy yet

. No woman shall succeed in Salique land: Did to his predecessors part withal.

Which Salique land the French unjustly gloze, Ely. How did this offer seem receiv'd, my lord ? To be the realm of France, and Pharamond

Cant. With good acceptance of his majesty; The founder of this law and female bar. Save, that there was not time enough to hear Yet their own authors faithfully aflirm, As, I perceiv’d, his grace would fain have done,) That the land Salique lies in Germany, The severals, and unhidden passages,

Between the floods of Sala and of Elbe : of his true titles to some certain dukedoms; Where Charles the great, having subdued the And, generally, to the crown and seat of France,

Saxons, Deriv'd from Edward, his great-grandfather. There left behind and settled certain French; Ely. What was the impediment ihat broke this Who, holding in disdain the German women, ofl'?

For some dishonest manners of their life, Cant. The French ambassador, upon that instant, Establish'd there this law,—-0 wit, no female Crav'd audience: and the hour, I think, is come, Should be inheritrix in Sulique land; To give him hearing : Is it four o'clock?

Which Saliqne, as I said, 'twist Elbe and Sala, Ely.

It is.

Is at this day in Germany call'd-Meisen. Cant. Then go we in, to know his embassy; Thus doth it well appear, the Salique law Which I could, with a ready guess, declare, Was not devised for the realm of France: Before the Frenchman speak a word of it. Nor did the French possess the Salique land Elu. I'll wait upon you; and I long to hear it. Until four hundred one and twenty years

[Exeunt. Aller desunction of king Pharamond, (1) Listen to. (2) Theory. (3) Companions. (4) Increasing. (5) Spurious. (6) Esplain.

Idly suppos'd the founder of this law;

So hath your highness; nerer king of England who died within the year of our redemption Had nobles richer, and more loyal subjects; Four hundred twenty-six; and Charles the great Whose hearts have left their bodies here in England, Subdued the Saxons, and did seat the French And lie pavilion'd in the fields of France. Beyond the river Sala, in the year

Cant. 0, let their bodies follow, iny dear liege, Eight hundred five. Besides, their writers say, With blood, and sword, and fire, to win your right: King Pepin, which deposed Childerick,

In aid whereof, we of the spirituality
Did, as heir general, being descended

Will raise your highness such a mighty sum,
OC Blithild, which was daughter to king Clothair, As never did the clergy at one time
Make claim and title to the crown of France. Bring in to any of your ancestors.
Hugh Capet also,-that usurp'd the crown

K. Hen. We must not only arm to invade the Of Charles the duke of Lorain, sole heir male

French; Of the true line and stock of Charles the great,- But lay down our proportions to defend To fine his title with some show of truth, Against the Scot, who will make road upon us (Though, in pure truth, it was corrupt and naught,) With all advantages. Convey'd himself as heir to the lady Lingare, Cant. They of those marches, gracious soveDaughter to Charlemain, who was ihe son

reign, To Lewis the emperor, and Lewis the son Shall be a wall sufficient to defend or Charles the great. Also king Lewis the tenth, Our inland from the pilfering borderers. Who was sole heir to the usurper Capet,

k. Hien. We do not mean the coursing snatchers Could not keep, quict in his conscience,

only, Wearing the crown of France, till satisfied But fear the main intendinente of the Scot, That fair queen Isabel, his grandmother,

Who hath been still a giddy neighbour to us ; Was lineal of the lady Ermengare,

l'or you shall read, that my great grandfather Daughter to Charles the foresaid chike of Lorain: Never went with his forces into France, By the which marriage, the line of Charles the great But that the Scot on his unfuruish'd kingdom Was re-united to the crown of France.

Came pouring, like the tide into a breach, So that, as clear as is the summer's sun,

With ample and brim fulness of his sorce; King Pepin's title, and Hugh Capet's claim, Galling the gleaned land with hot essays; king Lewis his satisfaction, all appear

Girding with grievous sicke, castles and towns, To hold in right and title of the female:

That England, being cmpty of delence, So do the kings of France unto this day; Iath shook, and treinbled ätthe ill neighbourhood. Howbeit they would hold up this Salique law, Cant. She hath been then more fear'd' than To bar your highness claiming from the female;

harm’d, my liere: And rather choose to hide them in a net,

For hear her but exampled by hersell,Than umply to imbare their crooked tiles When all her chivalry haih been in France, Usurp'd from you and your progenitors.

And she ? mourning widow of her nobles, K. Hlen. May I, with right and conscience, make She hath herselt not only well defended, this claim?

But taken, and impounded as a stray, Cant. The sin upon my head, dread sovereign! The king of Scots; whom she did send to France, For in the book of Numbers is it writ,

To till king Edward's fine with prisoner kings; When the son dics, let the inheritance

And make your chronicle as rich with praise, Descend unto the daughter. Gracious lord, As is the ooze and boltom of the sea Stand for your own; unwind your bloody lag; With sunkien wreck and sumless treasuries. Look back unto your mighty ancestors:

Wesl. But there's a sayin's, very old and true,Go, my dread lord, to your great grandsire's tomb, If that will France trin, From ishom you claim; invoke his warlike spirit, Then with Scotland first begin: And your great uncle's, Edward the black prince; For once the cagle England bring in prey, Who on the French ground play'd a tragedy, Toler unguarded nest the wcase Scot Making defeat on the full power of France; Comes sneaking, and so sucks her princely eggs; Wbiles his musi mighty father on a hill

Playing the mouse, in absence of the cat, Stood smilins; to brhold his lion's whelp To spoil and laroc more than she can eat. Forage iu blend of French nobility.'

Ere. It follows then, the cat must stay at home: O noble English, that could entertain

Yet that is but a curs'd necessity; With hall their forces the full pride of France; Since we have locks to safeguard necessaries, And let another ball stand laughing by,

And pretty traps to catch the petty thieves. All out of work, and cold for action!

While that the armed hand doch tight abroad, Ely. Awake remembrance of these valiant dead, The advised head defends itself at home: And with your puissant arın renew their feats : For government, though high, and low, and lower You are their beir, you sit upon their throne; Put into paris, doth keep in one concent; The blood and courage, thut renowned them, Congruings in a full and natural close, Runs in your veins; and my thrice-puissant 'liege Like music. Is in the very May-morn of his youth,

Cant. True: therefore doth heaven divide
Ripe for exploits and mighly enterprises. The state of man in divers functions,
Exe. Your brother kings and mon chs of the Setting endeavour in continual motion;

To which is fixed, as an aim or butt,
Do all expect that you should rouse yourself, Obedience: for so work the honey-bees ;
As did the former lions of your blood.

Creatures, that, by a rule in nature, teach West. They know, your grace hath cause, and The act of order to a peopled kingdom. means, and might;

They have a king, and officers of sorts:10 (1) Make showy or specious. (2) Derived his title. (6) General disposition. (7) Frightened. (3) Lay open.

(4) At the battle of Cressy, (8) Harmony. (9) Agreeing. (5) The borders of England and Scotland.

116) Different degrees.

Where some, like magistrates, correct at home; You cannot revel into dukedoms there :
Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad; He therefore sends you, meeter for your spirit,
Others, like soldicrs, arined in their stings, This tun of reasure; and, in lieu of this,
Make boot upon the summer's velvet buds; Desires you, let the dukedoms, that you claim,
Which pillage they with merry march bring home Flear no more of you. This the dauphin speaks.
To the tent-royal of their emperor:

K. Hen. What treasure, uncle ?
Who, busicd in his inajesty, surveys


Tennis-balls, my liege. The singing masons building rools of gold; K. Hen. We are glad, the dauphin is so pleaThe civil citizens kneading up the honey ;

sant with us ; The peor mechanic porters crowding in

His present, and your pains, we thank you for: Their heavy burdens at his parrow gate;

When we have match'd our rackets to these balls, The sad-ey'd justice, with his surly hum, We will, in France, by God's grace, play a set, Delivering o'er to executorsa pale

Shall strike his father's crown into the hazard;' The lazy yawning drone. 1 ihis infer,

Tell him, he hath made a match with such a That many things having full reference

wrangler, To one concent, inay work contrariously; That all the courts of France will be disturbid As many arrows, loosed several ways,

With chaces. And we understand him well, Fly to one mark;

How he comes o’er us with our wilder days, As many several ways meet in one town; Not incasuring what use we made of them. As many fresh streams run in one sell sca; We never valu'd this poor seat' of England ; As many lines close in the dial's centre;

And therefore, living hence, did give ourself So may a thousand actions, once afoot,

To barbarous license; As 'lis ever common, End in one purpose', and be all well borne That men are merriest when they are from homc. Without defeat. Therefore to France, my liege. But tell the dauphin, -I will keep my state; Divide your happy England into four;

Be like a king, and show my sail of greatness, Whereof take you one quarter into France, When I do rouse me in my throne of France : And you withalshull make all Gallia shake. For that I have laid by my majesty, li we, with thrice that power le at home, And plodded like a min for working days; Cannot dcfend our own door from the dog,

But I will rise there with so full a glory, Let us be worried; and our natiou lose

That I will dazzle all the eyes of France, The name of hardiness, and policy.

Yea, strike the dauphin blind to look on us. K. llen. Call in the messengers sent from the And tell the pleasant prince,-this mock of his dauphin.

Hath turn'd his balls to gun-stones; and his soul [Exit an attendant. The King ascends his Shall stand sore charged for the wasteful vengeance throne.

That shall ny with them: for many a thousand Now are we well resoly’d: and, -by God's help,

widows And yours, the noble sinews of our power,–

Shall this his mock mock out of their dear husbands; France being ours, we'll bend it to our awe,

Mock mothers from their sons, mock castles down; Or break it all to pieces: Or there we'll sit, And some are yet ungotten, and unborn, Ruling in large and ample empery,"

That shall have cause lo curse the dauphin's scorn. O’er France, and all her almost kingly dukedoms : But this lies all within the will of God, Or lav these bones in an unworthy urn,

To whom I do appeal; And in whose name, Tombless, with no remembrance over thein: Tell you the dauphin, I am coming on, Either our bistory shall, with full mouth, To venge me as may, and to put forth Speak freely of our acts; or else our grave, My rightful hand in a well-hallow'd cause. Like Turkish mute, shall have a tongueless mouth, So, get you hence in peace; and tell the dauphin, Not worship’d with a waxen epitaph.

His jest will savour bul of shallow wit,

When thousands weep, more than did laugh at it.Enler Ambassadors of France.

Convey them with sale conduct.-Fare you well. Now are we well prepar'd to know the pleasure

(Ertunt Ambassadors.

Ere. This was a merry message. of our sair cousin dauphin; for, we hear,

K. Hen. We hope to make the sender blush at it. Your greeting is from him, not from the king. Amb. May it please your majesty, to give us lcave

(Descends from his throne, Freely to render what we have in charge ;

Therefore, my lords, omit no happy hour, Or shall we sparingly show you far off

That may give furtherance to our expedition: The dauphin's meaning, and our embassy ?

For we have now no thought in us but France; K. Hen. We are no tyrant, but a Christian king : Therefore, let our proportions for these wars

Save those to God, that run before our business. Unto whose grace our passion is as subject, As are our wretches fetter'd in our prisons :

Be soon collected ; and all things thought upon, Therefore, with frank and with uncurbed plainness, More feathers to our wings; for, God before, Tell us the dauphin's mind. Amb.

Thus then, in few.

We'll chide this dauphin at his father's door.

Therefore, let every man now task his thought, Your highness, lately sending into France, Did claim some certain dukedoms, in the right

That this fair action may on foot be brought. of your great predecessor, king Edward the third.

(Eseunt. In answer of which claiin, the prince our master Says,-that you savour too much of your youth; And bids you be advis'd, there's nought in France,

ACT II. That can be with a nimble galliard* won;

Enter Chorus. (1) Sober, grave. (2) Executioners.

Chor. Now all the youth of England arc on fire. (3) Dominion. (4) An ancient dance.

15) A place in the tennis-court into which the (6) A term at tennis, (7) The throne. ball is sometimes struck,

(8) Withdrawing from the court.

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