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that the Americans have attained a very high rank among the white people. It is the same with us, though I say it myself. Where we live beyond the Mississippi, I am respected by all people, and they consider me the tallest among them. I am happy that two great men meet and shake hands with
As Appanoose concluded his speech, he suited the action to the word by extending his hand to Gov. Everett, amid the shouts of applause from the audience, who were not a little amused at the self-complacency of the orator. But few of the incidents in the life of this chief have passed into history. His name has been perpetuated in that of one of the Iowa counties.
Wapello, or Waupellow, was one of the minor chiets of the Sac and Fox Nation. He was born at Prairie du Chien, in 1787. At the time of the erection of Fort Armstrong (1816) he presided over one of the three principal villages in that vicinity. His village there was on the east side of the Mississippi, near the foot of Rock Island, and about three miles north of the famous Black Hawk village. In 1829 he removed his village to Muscatine Slough, and then to a place at or near where the town of Wapello, in Louisa county, is now located. Like Keokuk, he was in favor of abiding by the requirements of the treaty of 1804, and opposed the hostilities in which Black Hawk engaged against the whites. He was one of the chiefs that visited Washington in 1837, and his name appears to several treaties relinquishing lands to the United States. He appears to have been a warm personal friend of Gen. Jos. M. Street, of the Sac and Fox agency, and made a request that at his death his remains be interred along side of those of Gen. Street, which request was complied with. He died near the Forks of Skunk river, March 15th, 1842, at the age of 55 years. His remains, with those of Gen. Street, repose near Agency City, in the county which honors his memory with its name. The two graves and the monuments have recently been repaired by parties connected with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, whose line passes within a few rods of them.
Poweshiek was a chief of the same rank with Wapello, and near the same age. He also was one of the chiefs who visited Washington in 1837. When the greater portion of the Sac and Fox nation removed to the Des Moines river, he retained his village on the Iowa river, where he presided over what was known as the Musquawkie band of the Sacs and Foxes. In May, 1838, when Gen. Street organized a party to examine the new purchase made the fall before, with a view of selecting a site for the agency, the expedition was accompanied by about thirty braves, under the command of Poweshiek. At that time the Sacs and Foxes were at war with the Sioux, and after leaving their reservation these men were very fearful that they might be surprised and cut off by the Sioux. A small remnant of his band make their home on Iowa river, in Tama county, at this time. He also remained the friend of the whites during the Black Hawk war, and the people of Iowa have honored his memory by giving his name to one of their counties.
Pash-e-pa-ho, called also the Stabbing Chief, at the time of the treaty of 1804, and until after the Black Hawk war, was head chief among the Sacs. He was also present in St. Louis at the making of that treaty, and was even then well advanced in years. It has been related that he laid a plan to attack Fort Madison, not long after its erection. His plan was to gain an entrance to the fort with concealed arms under their blankets, under a pretense of holding a council. A squaw, however, had secretly conveyed intelligence to the commandant of the garrison of the intended attack, so that the troops were in readiness for them. When Pash-e-pa-ho and his warriors advanced in a body toward the closed gate, it suddenly opened, revealing to the astonished savages a cannon in the passage-way, and the gunner standing with lighted torch in hand ready to fire. Pashi-e-pa-ho deemed "discretion the better part of valor", and retreated.
Some time after the plot against Fort Madison, Pash-e-pa-ho made an attempt to obtain a lodgement in Fort Armstrong, though in quite a different
Several of his braves had the year before, while ont hunting, fell in with a party of their enemies, the Sioux, and had lifted several of their scalps. The Sioux complained of this outrage to the Department at Washington, and orders were issued demanding the surrender of the culprits. They were accordingly brought and retained as prisoners in Fort Armstrong, where they had comfortable quarters and plenty to eat during the winter. Having fared sumptuously for several months, without effort on their part, they were released on the payment of a small amount out of the annuities of their tribes, to the Sioux. The next fall Fash-e-pa-ho thought he might avoid the trouble of stocking his larder for the winter. So he voluntarily called on the commandant of Fort Armstrong, and informed him that while on a recent hunt he had unfortunately met a Sioux, and had yielded to the temptation to get his scalp. He confessed that he had done a very wrongful act, and wished to save the Great Father at Washington the trouble of sending a letter ordering his arrest; therefore he would surrender himself as a prisoner. The commandant saw through his scheme to obtain comfortable quarters and good boarding for the winter, and so told him he was an honorable Indian, and that his voluntary offer to surrender himself was a sufficient guarantee that he would appear when sent for. That was the last that was heard of the matter. Pash-e-pa-ho was never sent for.
During the first quarter of the present century the Sacs and Foxes were frequently at war with the Iowas. The latter had one of their principal villages on the Des Moines river, near where Black Hawk died many years af terward. It was here that the last great battle was fought between these tribes. Pash-e-pa-ho was chief in command of the Sacs and Foxes. Black Hawk was also a prominent actor in this engagement, but was subject to his senior, Pash-e-pa-ho. Accounts conflict as to the date, but the evidences of the conflict were plainly visible as late as 1824. The Sacs and Foxes surprised the Iowas while the latter were engaged in running their horses on the prairie, and therefore unprepared to defend themselves. The result was that Pasli-e-pa-ho achieved a decisive victory over the Iowas.
Pash-e-pa-ho was among the chiefs present at the making of the treaty of 1832, when the "Black Hawk Purchase was made. Ile was very much given to intemperate habits whenever he could obtain liquor, and it is prob ble that, like Keokuk, he died a drunkard.
Quite prominent. among the Sacs and Foxes, after their removal to Iowa, was a man known by the name of Hardfish, or Wish-e-co-ma-que, as it is in the Indian tongue. He was not a chief, but a brave who rose almost to the prominence of a chief. He adhered to Black Hawk in his hostility toward the whites, and when Black IIawk died, Hardfish became the leader of his band, composed mostly of those who had participated in the Black Hawk war. When the Sacs and Foxes occupied their reservation on the Des Moines river, Hardfish had his village where Eddyville is now located. It was quite as respectable in size as any of the other villages of the Sacs and Foxes. Hardfish's band was composed of people from the Sac branch of the Sac and Fox nation. One Jolin Goodell was the interpreter for this band. The name of Hardfish was quite familiar to the frontier settlers of Southeastern Iowa.
When, in 1834, Gen. IIenry Dodge made a treaty with the Winnebagoes for the country occupied by them in Wisconsin, they were transferred to a strip of land extending west from the Mississippi, opposite Prairie du Chien, to the Des Moines river, being a tract forty miles in width. The chief of the Winnebagoes at that time was Chos-chiun-ca, or Big Wave. Soon after their removal to this reservation they were visited by Willard Barrows, one of the pioneers of Davenport, who had an interview with Chos-chun-ca. He found him clothed in a buffalo overcoat, and wearing a high crowned hat. His nose was surmounted by a pair of green spectacles. Mr. Barrows held his interview with the chief just south of the lower boundary of the reservation. Chos-chun-ca was quite reticent as to the affairs of his people, and refused permission to Mr. Barrows to explore the Winnebago reservation, being impressed with the idea that the whites had sent him to seek out all the fine country, and that if their lands were found desirable, then the Indians would be compelled to remove again. Mr. Barrows, however, without the chief's permission, passed safely through their territory.
The greater portion of the territory embraced within the limits of Iowa, was once occupied by a tribe, or nation of Indians, known in history as the Iowas (or Ioways), who for many years maintained an almost constant warfare with the Sioux, a powerful rival who lived to the north of them. The Iowas were originally the Pan-hoo-chee tribe, and lived in the region of the lakes, to the northeast, but about the year 1700 they followed their chief, Mau-haw-gaw, to the banks of the Mississippi, and crossing over, settled on the west bank of Iowa river, near its mouth, and there established a village. They called the river on which they established their empire, Ne-o-ho-nee, or "Master of Rivers." For some years they prospered and multiplied, but the Sioux began to envy them the prosperity which they enjoyed, and with no good intentions came down to visit them. Sending to Mau-haw-gaw the pipe of peace, with an invitation to join them in a dog feast, they made great professions of friendship. The Iowa chief, having confidence in their protestations of good feeling, accepted the invitation. In the midst of the
feast the perfidious Sioux suddenly attacked and killed the unsuspecting Mau-haw-gaw. This outrage was never forgiven by the Iowas.
One of the most noted chiefs of the Iowas was Ma-has-kah (White Cloud), a descendent of Mau-haw-gaw. He led his warriors in eighteen battles against the Sioux on the north, and the Osages on the south, but never failed to achieve a victory. He made his home on the Des Moines river, about one hundred miles above the mouth, and must have been something of a Mormon, for it is said he had seven wives. In 1824 he was one of a party of chiefs who visited Washington. He left his home on the Des Moines to go down the river on his way to join his party, and when near where the city of Keokuk is now located, he stopped to prepare and eat his venison. He had just commenced his meal when some one struck him on the back. Turning round, he was surprised to see one of his wives, Rantche-wai-me (Female Flying Pigeon), standing with an uplifted tomahawk in her hand. She accosted him with "Am I your wife? Are you my husband? If so, I will go with you to Maw-he-hum-ne-che (the American big house), and see and shake the hand of In-co-ho-nee", meaning the Great Father, as they called the President. Ma-has-kah answered: "Yes, you are my wife; I am your husband; I have been a long time from you; I am glad to see you; you are my pretty wife, and a brave man always loves to see a pretty woman." Ma-has-kah went on to Washington accompanied by his "pretty wife ", Rant-che-wai-mie, who received many presents, but saw many things of which she disapproved. When she returned, she called together the matrons and maidens of the tribe, and warned them against the rices and follies of their white sisters. This good Indian woman was killed
by being thrown from her horse, some time after her return from Washington. In 1834 Ma-has-kah was also killed about sixty miles from his home, on the Nodaway, by an enemy who took a cowardly advantage of him. At the time of his death he was fifty years of age. After his death all his surviving wives went into mourning and poverty, according to the custom of the tribe, except one named Mis-so-rah-tar-ra-law (Female Deer that bounds over the prairie), who refused to the end of her life to be comforted, saying that her husband "was a great brave, and was killed by dogs", meaning low, vulgar fellows.
Soon after the death of Ma-has-kah, his son of the same name, at the age of twenty-four, became the chief of the Iowas. His mother was Rant-chewai-me, whose tragic death is mentioned above. He also visited Washing ton in the winter of 1836-7, for the purpose of obtaining redress for injus tice, which he claimed had been done to his people by the government, in failing to keep intruders from their lands, and in disregarding other stipu lations of the treaty made with his father in 1825.
When the whites began to make settlements on the upper Des Moines, the region about Fort Dodge and Spirit Lake was inhabited by Sioux Indians, made up principally of that division of the great Sioux or Dacotah nation known by the name of Sisiton Sioux. When, in 1848, the government surveys of the lands purchased north of the Raccoon Forks were in progress, Mr. Marsh, of Dubuque, set out with his party to run the correction