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line from a point on the Mississippi, near Dubuque, to the Missouri river. In this work he was not molested until he crossed the Des Moines, when on the west bank of the river, he was met by a party of Sioux, under the leadership of their chief, Si-dom-i-na-do-tah, who notified Mr. Marsh and his party that they should proceed no farther, as the country belonged to the Indians. The Sioux then left, and Mr. Marsh concluded to continue his work. He had not proceeded more than a mile when Si-dom-i-na-do-talı and his band returned and surrounded the party, robbing them of everything. They took their horses, destroyed their wagons and surveying instru ments, destroyed the land-marks, and drove the surveying party back to the east side of the river. This, and other outrages committed on families who, in the fall of 1849, ventured to make claims on the upper Des Moines, led to the establishment of a military post at Fort Dodge in 1850.

In the winter of 1846-7 one Henry Lott, an adventurous border character, had, with his family, taken up his residence at the mouth of Boone river, in what is now Webster county, and within the range of Si-dom-i-nado-tah's band. Lott had provided himself with some goods and a barrel of whisky, expecting to trade with the Indians, and obtain their furs and robes. In a short time he was waited upon by the chief and six of his braves and informed that he was an intruder and that he must leave within a certain time. The time having expired, and Lott still remaining, the Indians destroyed his property, shooting his stock and robbing his bee-hives. Lott and his step-son made their way to the nearest settlement, at Pea's Point, about 16 miles south, and reported that his family had been murdered by the Indians, as he doubtless thought they would be after he left. John Pea and half a dozen other white men, accompanied by some friendly Indians of another tribe, who happened to be in that vicinity, set out with Lott for the mouth of Boone river. When they arrived they found that the family had not been tomahawked, as he had reported. One little boy, however, aged about twelve years, had attempted to follow his father in his flight, by going down the Des Moines river on the ice. Being thinly clad, the little fellow froze to death after traveling on the ice a distance of about twenty miles. The body of the child was subsequently found. The sequel shows that Lott was de termined on revenge.

In November, 1853, Lott ventured about thirty miles north of Fort Dodge where he pretended to make a claim, in what is now Humboldt county. He took with him several barrels of whisky and some goods, and he and his step-son built a cabin near what is now known as Lott's creek in tha county. Si-dom-i-na-do-tah had his cabin on the creek about a mile west of Lott's. In January, 1854, Lott and his step-son went to the cabin of the old chief and told him that they had seen, on their way over, a drove of ell feeding on the bottom lands, and induced the old man to mount his pony with gun in hand, to go in pursuit of the elk. Lott and his step-son fol lowed, and when they had proceeded some distance they shot and killed Si dom-i-na-do-tal. That same night they attacked and killed six of the chief family, including his wife and two children, his aged mother, and two young children she had in charge-including with the chief, seven victims in all. Tw children, a boy of twelve, and a girl of ten years of age, escaped by hiding themselves. Some days after, the Indians reported the murders at, For Dodge, thinking at first that the slaughter had been perpetrated by some o their Indian enemies. Investigation soon revealed the fact that Lott and hi step-son had committed the deed. Their cabin was found burned down, an

a slight snow on the ground showed the track of their wagon in a circuitous route southward, avoiding Fort Dodge. Intelligence of them was received at various points where they had been trying to sell furs and other articles, and where the chief's pony was noticed to be in their possession. Having several days start, they made their way across the Missouri and took the plains for California, where, it was subsequently learned, Lott was killed in a quarrel. It is believed by many of the old settlers of Northern Iowa that this outrage of Henry Lott was the cause of that other tragedy, or rather series of tragedies, in the history of Northern Iowa, known as the "Spirit Lake Massacre."

INK-PA-DU-TAII.

Ink-pa-du-tah, it is said, was the brother, and became the successor, of the chief who was murdered by Henry Lott. He is known to the whites chiefly in connection with the horrible outrages committed at Spirit and Okoboji Lakes in Northern Iowa, and at Springfield in Southern Minnesota. Ile, in connection with U-tan-ka-sa-pa (Black Buffalo), headed a band of about eighteen lodges of Sioux, who, in the spring of 1857, robbed the settlers and committed the most inhuman outrages, culininating in the massacres of the 8th and 9th of March of that year. During the year 1856 a dozen or more families had settled about the lakes, while along the valley of the Little Sioux river at Smithland, Cherokee, and Rock Rapids there were settlements. Ink-pa-du-tal and his band commenced their depredations at Smithland, and passing up the Little Sioux made hostile demonstrations both at Cherokee and Rock Rapids, killing stock and carrying away whatever they saw proper to take, but committed no murders until they reached the infant settlement at the lakes. There, and at Springfield, a small settlement in Minnesota a few miles northeast, they killed forty-one, wounded three, and took with them as captives four women-Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Thatcher, Mrs. Marble, and Miss Gardner. Twelve persons were missing, some of whose remains were afterward found, having been killed while attempting to escape. Of the four women taken captives, two were killed on their flight, Mrs. Howe and Mrs. Thatcher. The other two, Mrs. Marble and Miss Gardner, were some months after, through the efforts of Gov. Madarie, of Minnesota, and the Indian agent at Laqua Parle, purchased from Ink-pa-du-tah by employing friendly Indians to affect the purchase. By this raid and massacre the settlement at the lakes was entirely swept away. All the houses were burned, and all the stock either killed or taken away. At Springfield the settlers were somewhat prepared to defend themselves, having heard of the slaughter at the lakes. Seven or eight persons, however, were killed at Springfield. The winter preceding these massacres had been unusually severe, and snow had fallen to the depth of from one to two feet. In March all the ravines were filled with drifted snow, with a thick and heavy crust, so that travel in that region was almost impossible. For this reason those infant settleinents were almost cut off from intercourse with the thickly inhabited parts of the country. It was, therefore, some time before the news of the massacres reached Fort Dodge, the nearest settlement. The messengers who conveyed the intelligence were Messrs. Bell and Williams, who lived on Little Sioux river. Messrs. Howe, Snyder and Parmenter, of Newton, who had attempted to relieve the inhabitants at the lakes with provisions, also upon arriving there found all the settlers murdered. They, too, hastened as rapidly as possible to Fort Dodge and reported. Messengers were at once

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line from a point on the Mississippi, near Dubuque, to the Missouri river. In this work he was not molested until he crossed the Des Moines, when on the west bank of the river, he was met by a party of Sioux, under the leadership of their chief, Si-dom-i-na-do-tah, who notified Mr. Marsh and his party that they should proceed no farther, as the country belonged to the Indians. The Sioux then left, and Mr. Marsh concluded to continue his work. He had not proceeded more than a mile when Si-dom-i-na-do-talı and his band returned and surrounded the party, robbing them of everything. They took their horses, destroyed their wagons and surveying instruments, destroyed the land-marks, and drove the surveying party back to the east side of the river. This, and other outrages committed on families who, in the fall of 1849, ventured to make claims on the upper Des Moines, led to the establishment of a military post at Fort Dodge in 1850.

In the winter of 1846-7 one Henry Lott, an adventurous border character, had, with his family, taken up his residence at the mouth of Boone river, in what is now Webster county, and within the range of Si-dom-i-nado-tah's band. Lott had provided himself with some goods and a barrel of whisky, expecting to trade with the Indians, and obtain their furs and robes. In a short time he was waited upon by the chief and six of his braves and informed that he was an intruder and that he must leave within a certain time. The time having expired, and Lott still remaining, the Indians destroyed his property, shooting his stock and robbing his bee-hives. Lott and his step-son made their way to the nearest settlement, at Pea's Point, about 16 miles south, and reported that his family had been murdered by the Indians, as he doubtless thought they would be after he left. John Pea and half a dozen other white men, accompanied by some friendly Indians of another tribe, who happened to be in that vicinity, set out with Lott for the mouth of Boone river. When they arrived they found that the family had not been tomahawked, as he had reported. One little boy, however, aged about twelve years, had attempted to follow his father in his flight, by going down the Des Moines river on the ice. Being thinly clad, the little fellow froze to death after traveling on the ice a distance of about twenty miles. The body of the child was subsequently found. The sequel shows that Lott was determined on revenge.

In November, 1853, Lott ventured about thirty miles north of Fort Dodge, where he pretended to make a claim, in what is now Humboldt county. He took with him several barrels of whisky and some goods, and he and his step-son built a cabin near what is now known as Lott's creek in that county. Si-dom-i-na-do-tah had his cabin on the creek about a mile west of Lott's. In January, 1854, Lott and his step-son went to the cabin of the old chief and told him that they had seen, on their way over, a drove of elk feeding on the bottom lands, and induced the old man to mount his pony, with gun in hand, to go in pursuit of the elk. Lott and his step-son followed, and when they had proceeded some distance they shot and killed Sidom-i-na-do-tal. That same night they attacked and killed six of the chief's family, including his wife and two children, his aged mother, and two young children she had in charge-including with the chief, seven victims in all. Two children, a boy of twelve, and a girl of ten years of age, escaped by hiding themselves. Some days after, the Indians reported the murders at, Fort Dodge, thinking at first that the slaughter had been perpetrated by some of their Indian enemies. Investigation soon revealed the fact that Lott and his step-son had committed the deed. Their cabin was found burned down, and

a slight snow on the ground showed the track of their wagon in a circuitous route southward, avoiding Fort Dodge. Intelligence of them was received at various points where they had been trying to sell furs and other articles, and where the chief's pony was noticed to be in their possession. Having several days start, they made their way across the Missouri and took the plains for California, where, it was subsequently learned, Lott was killed in a quarrel. It is believed by many of the old settlers of Northern Iowa that this outrage of Henry Lott was the cause of that other tragedy, or rather series of tragedies, in the history of Northern Iowa, known as the "Spirit Lake Massacre."

INK-PA-DU-TAII.

Ink-pa-du-tal, it is said, was the brother, and became the successor, of the chief who was murdered by Henry Lott. He is known to the whites chiefly in connection with the horrible outrages committed at Spirit and Okoboji Lakes in Northern Iowa, and at Springfield in Southern Minnesota. He, in connection with U-tan-ka-sa-pa (Black Buffalo), headed a band of about eighteen lodges of Sioux, who, in the spring of 1857, robbed the settlers and committed the most inhuman outrages, culininating in the massacres of the 8th and 9th of March of that year. During the year 1856 a dozen or more families had settled about the lakes, while along the valley of the Little Sioux river at Smithland, Cherokee, and Rock Rapids there were settlements. Ink-pa-du-tah and his band commenced their depredations at Smithland, and passing up the Little Sioux made hostile demonstrations both at Cherokee and Rock Rapids, killing stock and carrying away whatever they saw proper to take, but committed no murders until they reached the infant settlement at the lakes. There, and at Springfield, a small settlement in Minnesota a few miles northeast, they killed forty-one, wounded three, and took with them as captives four women-Mrs. Howe, Mrs. Thatcher, Mrs. Marble, and Miss Gardner. Twelve persons were missing, some of whose remains were afterward found, having been killed while attempting to escape. Of the four women taken captives, two were killed on their flight, Mrs. Howe and Mrs. Thatcher. The other two, Mrs. Marble and Miss Gardner, were some months after, through the efforts of Gov. Madarie, of Minnesota, and the Indian agent at Laqua Parle, purchased from Ink-pa-du-tah by employing friendly Indians to affect the purchase. By this raid and massacre the settlement at the lakes was entirely swept away. All the houses were burned, and all the stock either killed or taken away. At Springfield the settlers were somewhat prepared to defend themselves, having heard of the slaughter at the lakes. Seven or eight persons, however, were killed at Springfield. The winter preceding these massacres had been unusually severe, and snow had fallen to the depth of from one to two feet. In March all the ravines were filled with drifted snow, with a thick and heavy crust, so that travel in that region was almost impossible. For this reason those infant settlements were almost cut off from intercourse with the thickly inhabited parts of the country. It was, therefore, some time before the news of the massacres reached Fort Dodge, the nearest settlement. The messengers who conveyed the intelligence were Messrs. Bell and Williams, who lived on Little Sioux river. Messrs. Howe, Snyder and Parmenter, of Newton, who attempted to relieve the inhabitants at the lakes with provisions, also upon arriving there found all the settlers murdered. They, too, hastened as rapidly as possible to Fort Dodge and reported. Messengers were at once

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had

sent to Webster City and Homer to request the citizens to turn out for the relief of the frontier, and they responded promptly. Those two places fur nished forty men and Fort Dodge eighty. The force of 120 men was formed into three companies of forty men each, under Captains C. B. Richards, John F. Duncombe, and J. C. Johnston. The battalion was commanded by Major W. Williams. On the 25th of March the battalion started from Fort Dodge, the snow still covering the ground and all the ravines being so gorged with drifted snow that in places it was necessary to cut their way through snow-banks from ten to twenty feet deep. After marching thirty miles ten men had to be sent back, reducing the force to 110 men. In the meantime a force from Fort Ridgely was approaching from the north. The Indians, expecting these movements, had taken their flight across the Big Sioux river to join the Yanktons, in what is now Dakota. The troops, after almost incredible hardships and sufferings for eighteen days and nights, being without tents, failed to get sight of a single hostile Indian. They found and buried the bodies of twenty-nine persons. A number were burned in the houses by the savages, and their remains were found in the ashes. The expedition lost two valuable citizens, Captain J. C. Johnston, of Webster City, and William Burkholder, of Fort Dodge, the latter being a brother of Mrs. Gov. C. C. Carpenter. They were frozen to death on their return from the lakes. Eighteen others were more or less frozen, and some did not recover for a year after. Several years after his death the remains of young Burkholder were found on the prairie, being recognized by the remains of his gun and clothing. When overcome by the cold he was separated from his companions, and his fate was for sometime unknown.

From this brief account of Ink-pa-du-tah, it will be conceded that there is no reason to cherish his memory with any degree of admiration. He was the leader of a band comprising even the worst element of the Sioux nation, the best of which is bad enough, even for savages. The germ of the band of which he was chief, was a family of murderers, known as Five Lodges, who, it was said, having murdered an aged chief, wandered away and formed a little tribe of their own, with whom rogues from all the other bands found refuge. At the time of these hostilities against the whites under Ink-pa-dutah, they numbered probably over 150 lodges. They were constantly roving about in parties, stealing wherever they could from trappers and settlers. The subsequent career of Ink-pa-du-tah has been west of the borders of Iowa

and Minnesota.

EARLY NAVIGATION OF WESTERN RIVERS.

Navigation of the Mississippi by the Early Explorers-Flat-boats-Barges-Methods of Propulsion-Brigs and Schooners-The first Steamboat on Western Waters-The "Orleans "The "Comet-The "Enterprise"-Capt. Shreve-The "Washington "-The "General Pike"-First Steamboat to St. Louis-The "Independence" the first Steamboat on the Missouri-Capt. Nelson-Mackinaw Boats "-Navigation of the upper Mississippi-The Virginia "The "Shamrock "-Capt. James May-Navigation of the upper MissouriSteamboating on the Smaller Rivers.

We have accounts of the navigation of the Mississippi river as early as 1539, by De Soto, while in search of the "fountain of youth". Ilis voyage ended with his life, and more than a hundred years passed away, when Mar quette and Joliet again disturbed its waters with a small bark transporte

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