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and gravel of siunilar quality with that which composes the neighboring ground, which is another circumstance quite conclusive of the correctness of the conjecture that the material for the inner wall was brought from a distance. There is but one original opening, or passage, into the circular fort, and that is on the east side, connecting it with the square one. The latter has seven avenues leading into it, exclusive of the one which connects with the circle. There is one at every corner, and one on each side equi-distant from the angular openings. These avenues are each twelve feet wide, and the walls on either hand rise immediately to their usual height, which is above twenty feet. When the town of Circleville was originally laid out, the trees growing upon the walls of these fortifications and the mounds enclosed in the square one, were apparently of equal size and age, and those lying down in equal stages of decay, witli those in the surrounding forest, a circumstance proving the great antiquity of these stupendous remains of former labor and ingenuity. Of course, the progress of modern civilization in the building of a city over these ancient remains, has long since nearly obliterated many of their parts. The above is a description of them as they appeared sixty years ago, wlien Circleville was a mere village, and before the hand of modern vandalisin had inarred or obliterated any of the parts. A somewhat minute description of these ancient remains is given, not because they are more remarkable than many others found in different parts of the Northwest, but as an example to show the magnitude of many similar works. Among others in the saine State may be mentioned a remarkable mound near Marietta, which is enclosed by a wall embracing an area 230 feet long by 215 wide. This mound is thirty feet high and elliptical in form. This mound, with the wall enclosing it, stand apart froin two other irregular enclosures, one containing fifty and the other twenty-seven
Within the larger of these two enclosures there are four truncated pyramids, three of which have graded passage ways to their sumınits. Tho largest pyramid is 188 feet long by 132 feet wide, and is ten feet highı. From the southern wall of this enclosure there is a graded passage way 150 feet broad, extending 600 feet to the immediate valley of the Muskingum river. This passage way is guarded by embankments on either side from eight to ten feet high. In the smaller square there are no pyrannidal structures, but fronting each gate-way there is a circular mound. The walls of these several enclosures are from twenty to thirty feet broad at the base, and froin five to six feet high. Besides these, many similar embankments may be traced in the same vicinity.
Squier and Davis, authors of that most elaborate work, entitled “The Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley”, estimated that there were in Ross county, Ohio, at least one hundred enclosures and tive hundred mounds. They give the probable number in that State at from one thousand to tifteen hundred enclosures, and ten thousand mounds. These estimates are quite likely to be far below the actual number, as their investigations were made many years ago, when large portions of the State were yet covered with for: ests, and before any general interest had been awakened on the subject of which they treated. Among the remarkable fortitications in Ross county is one at Cedar Bank, on the east side of the Scioto river, about five miles north of Chillicothe. It is of a square forin, enclosing an area of thirtytwo acics. The west side of this enclosure is formed by the high bluff bor. dering the river at this point. There are two gate-ways opposite cach other, one on the north and the other on the south side. Inside of the enclosure,
on a line with the gate-ways, there is a mound 245 feet long and 150 feet broad. The form of this work is shown by the diagram on the opposite page.
When this work first attracted the attention of Mr. E. G. Squier, Dr. Davis, and others engaged in archæological research, it was in the midst of a dense forest of heavy tiniber. Trees of the largest growth stood on the em bankınents, and covered the entire area of ground enclosed. About a mile and a half below, on the same side of the Scioto, are other fortifications, both circular and square, even more remarkable than the one last described, on account of the forms and combinations which they exhibit. Another fortification in this county, in the form of a parallelogram, 2,800 feet long by 1,800 feet wide, encloses several smaller works and mounds, which altogether make 3,000,000 cubic feet of embankment.
A series of the most wonderful and most gigantic of these pre-historic works, is to be found in the Licking Valley, near Newark. They cover an area of two square miles. The works are of such vast magnitude that even with our labor-saring implements to construct them, would require the labor of thousands of men continued for many months. “Fort Ancient”, as it is called, in Warren county, Olio, las nearly four miles of embankment, from eighteen to twenty feet higlı.
Mounds and fortifications siunilar to those in Ohio are found in all the States of the Northwest, and indeed, throughout the entire valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries. In the valley of the Wabash, in Indiana, are many interesting remains of the works of the Mound Builders. Near Kahokia, Illinois, tliere is a mound 2,000 feet in circumference, and ninety feet high. Many reinarkable objects of interest to the antiquary are found in Wisconsin. Scattered over her undulating plains are earth-works, mod. eled after the forms of men and animals. At Aztalan, in Jefferson county, is an ancient fortitication 550 yards long and 275 yards wide. The walls are from four to five feet high, and more than twenty feet in thickness at the base. Near the Blue Mounds, in that State, there is another work, in form resembling a man in a recumbent position. It is one hundred and twenty feet long and thirty feet across the trunk. At Prairieville there is still another resembling a turtle in shape which, is fifty-six feet in length. At Cassville there is one which is said to resemble the extinct mastedon. In some instances these animal resemblances and forins are much defaced by time, while in other cases they are distinctly visible. Fragments of ancient pottery are found scattered about most of them.
Scattered over the surface of Iowa, also, are to be found many of these inonuinents of a pre-historic race. The mounds especially are numerous, appearing most in that portion of the State east of the Des Moines river, but in a few instances west of it. Groups of inounds are found along Iowa river, in Johnson county, presenting the same general appearance with those in the States east of the Mississippi. Near the mouth of this river, in Louisa county, are the remains of an ancient fortification, with a number of mounds in the same vicinity, which have attracted the attention of the curious. In the vicinity of Ottumwa, Wapello county, are a large number of mounds, several of which have been examined. There is a cliain of them in this last named county, commencing near the mouth of Sugar Creek, a small tributary of the Des Moines, and extending twelve miles nortward, with distances between tiem in some instances as great as two miles. Two of them were excavated several years ago. One of them was about 45 feet in diameter, and situated upon the highest ground in the vicinity. The other was directly
north about one-fourth of a inile. Its diameter at the base was about 13 feet. In the center of this last named mound, was found, at the depth of four feet, a layer of stone, with the appearance of having been subjected to the action of tire. There were also found a mass of charcoal, a bed of ashes, and calcined human bones. A number of relics were also found in the smaller mound first mentioned. These examinations were made by several gentlemen of Ottumwa.
Mr. F. C. Roberts, in a Fort Madison paper, writes of the examination of a mound situated about six miles north of that city, a few years ago.
It is located on the brow of a hiil, is of an elliptical shape, and small in size, being only about 30 feet long, and fifteen feet wide; its height was about six feet. The mound contained a number of separate compartments, constructed as follows: First, there was a floor made of limestone, which must have been brought a distance of several miles, as none nearer could have been obtained. This floor was laid regular and smooth, the best stone only being used. Above the floor, with an intervening space of about twenty inches, there was a roof, also made of limestone. The sides of this vault, it it may so be called, seemed to have once had stone walls, but they were more or less caved in. It was also thought that the roof had originally been much higher. The compartments were made by partitions or walls of stone. Each compartment was occupied by a human skeleton, and articles of flint anal stone, as well as some bones of animals. All the skeletons of humau origin were placed in a sitting position, with the knees drawn up, and the head inclined forward between them. The arms were placed by the side, and soinetimes clasped around the knees. Besides the human bones, there were those of some large birds and of some animal. Some of these were charred, and were found in connection with charcoal and ashes. There were nunerons Hint weapons, and small three cornered stones.
In Clayton and other counties in the northeastern part of the State, the Mound Builders lave left numerous monuments of their existence in that region in pre-historic times. The researches of Ilon. Samuel Murdock, of Ciayton county, have been extensive and successful in giving to the scientific and antiquarian world much information in relation to these works of an ancient people who once occupied our continent. lle has collected a vast number of relics from the mounds in that portion of the State. After long and thorongh investigation, he gives it as his opinion that in Clayton county alone there are not less than one hundred thousand artificial mounds, including the two classes, the round and the elongated, the latter ranging from one hundred to six hundred feet in length. All of them, so far as examinations have been made, contain more or less skeletops. One which was examined near Clayton was estimated to have contained over one hundred bodies. From investigations made, the interence is drawn that the elongated mounds are of greater antiquity than tlic round ones. The skeletons found in the former are in a more advanced state ot' decay, and in some of them there is scarcely any trace of bones. In nearly all the round mounds skeletons were found in a remarkalıly gooul state of preservation, and can be obtained by the thonsand. These tácts indicate most conclnsively that the elongated mounds were the work of an older race of the Mound Builders, and that they were erected ages before the round ones were. The fact that human remains have been found in nearly all of both classes favors the theory that they were erected as receptacles tür the dead.