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While workmen were excavating a mound for the foundation of a warehouse in the city of McGregor, in the summer of 1874, human bones were found, and also a stone axe weighing thirteen pounds. It was embedded twenty feet below the original surface.

As stated, the work of the Mound Builders was not confined to that portion of the State embracing the Mississippi drainage. Similar remains, though not so numerous, are observed on the western slope of the water shed between the two great rivers bordering the State. Some five miles below Denison, Crawford county, in the valley of Boyer river, there is a semi-circular group of artificial mounds. They are situated on a plateau, rising above the first, or lower bottom, and are about nine in number, each rising to a height of from five to six feet above the general level of the ground. Another similar group is located on a second bottom, at the mouth of Paradise creek, in the saine county. Human remains have been found in some of them.

Having noticed briefly some of the various forms in which these stupendous works of men who lived far back in the centuries, whose annals have not come down to us in any written language, we can say now that the most learned have only been able to conjecture as to the remoteness of their antiquity. The evidences that they are of very great age are abundant and conclusive, but how many hundreds or thousands of years. This is the problem that many an antiquary would freely give years of study and investigation to solve. The length of time which elapsed during which these works were in progesss is another of the unsolved questions connected with them, and yet there is abundant evidence that some of them are much older than others; that the process of their construction extends over a large duration of time—a time during which the Mound Builders themselves passed through the changes which mark the monuments that they have left behind them. It is a well known fact that the manners and customs of rude nations

a isolated from intercourse and commerce with the world, pass through the process of change and development very slowly. The semi-civilized nations of eastern lands, after the lapse of thousands of years, still cling to the manners and customs, and the superstitions of their ancestors, who lived at the early dawn of our historic period. They use the same rude implements of husbandry, the same utensils in the household, the same arms in warfare, and practice the same styles of dress-all with but little change or moditication. The changes are only sufficiently marked to be perceptible after many generations have passed away. Situated as the Mound Builders were, we can but infer that they too passed slowly through the processes of change, and the works which they have left behind them thoroughly attest the truth of this proposition. Their older works appear to be more elaborate and more intricate, showing that the earlier workers were possessed of a higher degree of attainment in the mechanical arts than those whose works are more recent. The inference is that probably after long ages, they gradually retrograded, and were finally subdued or driven southward into Mexico and Central America, by the ancestors of the Indians, who came upon them from the northwest, as the Goths and Vandals invaded and subverted the Roman Empire. This final subjugation may have resulted after centuries of warfare, during which time these fortifications were constructed as defences against the enemy. That they were for military purposes is scarcely susceptible nf a doubt. This implies a state of warfare, and war implies an enemy. The struggle ended in the final subjugation of that people to whoni

We apply the name of Mound Builders—their conquerors and successors being a race of people in whom we recognize to this day, traces of the Asiatic type.

We, another race of people, after the lapse of other ages, tread to-day, in our turn, on the ruins of at least a limited civilization—a civilization older than that of the Aztecs, whom Curtez found in Mexico. This great Mississippi valley was once a populous empire, millions of whose subjects repose in the sepulchers scattered in our valleys and over onr prairies. While we bow at the shrine of a more intelligent Deity, and strive to build up a truer and better civilization, let us still remember that we tread on classic ground.


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Omo was the first State forned out of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, which was ceded to the United States by the General Assembly of Virginia in 1783, and accepted by the Congress of the United States, March 1, 1784. This territory was divided into two separate governments by act of Congress of May 7, 1800. Ohio remained a Territorial government until under an act of Congress, approved April 30, 1802, it adopted a State constitution, and was allowed one representative in Congress. On the first of November of the same year the constitution was presented in Congress. The people having, on November 29, 1802, complied with the act of Congress of April 30, 1802, whereby the State became one of the United States, an act was passed and approved February 19, 1803, for the due execution of the laws of the United States within that State.

The State embraces an area of about 39,964 square miles, or 25,576,960 acres.

There are no mountains, but the central portion of the State is elevated about 1000 feet above the level of the sea, while other portions are from 600 to 800 feet in elevation. A belt of highlands north of the middle of the State separates the rivers flowing north into Lake Erie from those flowing south into the Ohio river.

The middle portion of the State in great part is an elevated plain with occasional patches of marsh land. A large proportion of the State when first settled was covered with forests, but in the central part there was some prairie. Boulders are found scattered over the surface, as they are generally throughout the Northwest.

The bituminous coal-tield of the State extends over an area embracing nearly 12,000 square miles. It occupies the eastern and southeastern parts, with its northern boundary running near Wooster, Newark, and Lancaster. There are also frequent beds of limestone, as well as sandstone well suited for heavy masonry. The most important of the other mineral productions is iron, which it possesses in great abundance. This is found running through the counties of Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Meigs, Vinton, Athens, and Locking, in a bed 100 miles long by 12 wide. For fine castings it is not surpassed by that found in any other part of the United States. Salt springs are also frequent.

The great river of the State is the Ohio, which forms its southern boundary, and receives the tributary volume of waters flowing from the Muskingnm, Scioto, and Miami, as well as those of many smaller streams. The interior rivers mentioned vary in length from 110 to 200 miles. The Ohio is navigable by steamboats of the first-class during one-half the year to Pittsburg. The Muskingum is navigable by means of dams and locks to Zanesville, 70 miles from its mouth, and at times 30 miles farther up to Coshocton. On the northern slope of the State, beginning at the north west, are the Maumee, Sandusky, Iluron, and Cuyahoga, all Howing into Lake Erie, and ali flowing their entire course within the State, except the Maumee, which rises in Indiana. The last-named river is navigable for lake steamers a distance of 18 miles. Lake Erie coasts the state about 150 miles on the north and northeast, affording several good harbors.

The climate in the southern part of the State is mild, while in the north the temperature is equally as rigorous as in the same latitude near the Atlantic. Great droughts have occasionally prevailed, but the State is rcgarded as one of the most productive in the Union. Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, and barley, are the leading cereals. All the fruits of the temperate latitudes are generally abundant. The forest trees are of many kinds, including the several varieties of oak, hickory, sugar and maple, beech, poplar, aslı, sycamore, paw-paw, buckeye, dogwood, cherry, elin, and hackberry.

The Siate receives its naine from that of the river which forms its southern boundary. It is of Indian or aboriginal origin. It is not easy to determine its real signification in the Indian language, but some writers have claimed that it means handsome or beautiful. This opinion would seem to be somewhat plausible from the fact that the early French explorers called it La Belle Riviere, or the Beautiful River, having probably learned the signification of the Indian name, and therefore gave it a l'rench name with the same signification.

Ohio was first partially settled by a few French emigrants on the Ohio river, while they possessed Canada and Louisiana, abont the middle of the the last century. But these settlements were very inconsiderable until the year 1787 and 1788, when the Ohio Company and others from New England inade the settlernent at Marietta. The early inhabitants were much annoyed by the incursions of the Indians, who had successively defeated Gen. Ilarmar and Gen. St. Clair, in 1791 and 1792, but were themselves utterly routed by Gen. Wayne in August, 1794. Fort Sandusky, in the war of 1812, was siccessfully defended by Maj. Croghan, then but 21 years of age, with 160 men against the attack of Gen. Proctor, with 500 British regulars and as many Indians. Cincinnati was laid out as early as 1788, but there were only a few settlers until after Wayne's victory. It then improved rapidly, having in 1818 e population of upward of 9,000. Chillicothe was laid out in 1796, and in 1818 had a population of 2,600. Columbus, the present capital, was laid out early in the year 1812, and in 1818 contained about 1,500 inhabitants. Cleveland was laid out in 1796, and about the same time a number of settlements were made along the Miami. Until the legislature met in Coluun. bus, in December, 1816, Cincinnati and Chillicothe had alternately enjoyed the distinction of being both the Territorial and State capitals. In 1814 the first State-house, a plain brick building, was erected at Columbus, the permanent seat of the State Government. In February, 1852, it was entirely consumed by fire, and was succeeded by the present fine State capitol, which had been commenced prior to the destruction of the old one.

The convention which formed the first constitution of the State was held in Chillicothe, in November, 1802.

The following table shows the population of Olio at the close of each decade from 1800 to 1870:








45,365 1810.



230,760 120.


581,295 1830.


937,903 1840.

1,502, 122


1,519,467 1830.

1,955,050 25,279

1,980,329 1860.


36.673 *2,339,511 1870.

2,601,946 63,213 *2.665,260 The above aggregate for 1860 includes 30 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 1870 includes 100 enumerated as Indians.


Indiana was formed out of a part of the Northwestern Territory which was ceded to the United States by the Virginia. It received a separate Territorial form of government by act of Congress of May 7, 1800, and William llenry Harrison was appointed Governor. At this time it included all the territory west to the Mississippi river, including all now embraced in the States of Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi. The seat of the territorial government was established at Vincennes. By act of January 11, 1805, it was divided into two separate governments, and that of Michigan created. Again, February 3, 1809, that of Illinois was created. On the 19th of April, 1816, Congress passed an act to enable the people of Indiana to form a constitution and State government. On the 29th of June of the same year the people formed a constitution, and on the 11th of December, 1816, an act of Congress was approved admitting the State into the Union. The laws of the United States were extended to the State by an act of March 3, 1817.

Indiana is 278 miles in its greatest length from north to south, and about 1.44 iniles in width, and includes an area of 33,809 square miles, or 21,637,700 acres. It has no mountains or great elevations, but portions south of White river are somewhat hilly. North of the White and Wabash rivers the country is generally level or slightly undulating. The rivers are gener

. ally bordered by rich alluvial bottom lands, sometimes extending for several iniles in widtli. Some of the southeastern counties in places present a rocky surface. The eastern part is generally heavily timbered, while the western is chricfly prairie. The State has a gradual inclination toward the Ohio, and most of the streams flow into that river. Lake Michigan borders the State on the northwest for a distance of about 40 miles, while the Ohio forins the entire southern boundary. In the northern part there are some small lakes. The Wabash is the largest interior river, and with its tribut:ries drains nearly three-fourths of the State. At high water it is navigable

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