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salt springs, and considerable quantities of salt have been manufactured. Railroads connect it with all the great markets of the country.
Omaha is the leading commercial city of the State, and is located on the west bank of the Missouri river in Douglas county. It is 18 miles by land above the mouth of the Platte river. The principal portion of the city is situated on gently rising slopes extending from the river to the bluffs. The elevations are crowned with fine residences, and command pleasant views of the river and valley, with the city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, in the distance. Since the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad it has grown in population and wealth very rapidly. A costly iron railroad bridge spans the Missouri river at this point. As a produce, shipping and general commercial point it is rapidly growing into prominence. It was the first capital of the Territory and State, and takes its name from a tribe of Indians.
Among other important towns and cities are Nebraska City, Columbus, Kearney, Grand Island, Hastings, Plattsmouth, Tecumseh, and Niobrara. The following table shows the population of Nebraska by the census of
. 1860 and 1870:
In the aggregate for 1860, the enumeration includes 63 Indians, and in that of 1870, the enumeration includes 87 Indians.
Missouri was formed out of a part of the territory ceded by France to the United States in 1803. By an act approved March 26th, 1804, the French, or Louisiana purchase, was divided, that part embracing the present State of Missouri being at first designated as the District of Louisiana. name was changed to Territory of Louisiana, by an act passed March 3d, 1805, and again by an act of June 4, 1812, Louisiana Territory was changed to Missouri Territory. By an act passed March 2, 1819, the southern portion was detached and organized as the Territory of Arkansas. During the same year the people of the Territory of Missouri, through their Legislative Council and House of Representatives, memorialized Congress for admission into the Union as a State. On the 6th of March following an act was passed to authorize the people of the Territory to form a State constitution. Missouri being the first State formed wholly out of territory west of the Mississippi, the question of the extension of slavery came up and gave rise to a stormy debate in Congress while the Missouri bill, as it was called, was pending. The propriety and expediency of extending that institution to the new States west of the Mississippi, was powerfully and earnestly contested, and resulted in a compromise restricting slavery to certain limits, and prohibiting the extension of slavery to certain territory. The bill, however, of March 6th, passed without restrictions. The people on the 19th of July, 1820, adopted their constitution, which was laid before Congress November 16th of the same year. The Senate passed a joint resolution declaring the admission of the State of Missouri into the Union. This was referred to a select committee in the House of Representatives, and on
the 10th of February, 1821, Mr. Clay made a report. The House rejected the resolution, and on motion of Mr. Clay, a committee on the part of the House was appointed to join a committee on the part of the Senate to consider the subject and report. On the 26th of February, Mr. Clay, from the joint committee, reported a "Resolution providing for the admission of the State of Missouri into the Union, on a certain condition." This resolution was passed and approved, March 2, 1821. The condition was that Missouri, by its legislature, should assent to a condition that a part of the State constitution should never be construed to authorize the passage of a law by which any citizen of either of the States in the Union should be excluded from the enjoyment of any of the priviliges and immunities to which such citizen is entitled under the Constitution of the United States. What was known as the "Missouri Compromise," was embraced in the act of the previous session, which authorized the people of the State of Missouri to form a State constitution, and consisted of a compromise section in the bill by which slavery was to be forever prohibited in that part of the territory west of the Mississippi (except the State of Missouri), lying north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude. Thus, after fierce and stormy debates, running through two sessions of Congress, Missouri came into the Union, and the exciting question of slavery was supposed also to have been settled. On the 10th of August, 1821, President Monroe issued his proclamation declaring the admission of Missouri completed, according to law.
Missouri in its greatest length from east to west is about 285 miles, and in width from north to south, 280 miles. It embraces an area of 67,380 square miles, or 43,123,200 acres. That portion of it north of the Missouri river is mostly undulating prairie and timber land, while that portion south of the Missouri river is characterized by a great variety of surface. In the southeast part, near the Mississippi, is an extensive area of marshy land. The region forming the outskirts of the Ozark Mountains is hilly and broken. West of the Osage river is a vast expanse of prairie. The geological features of Missouri are exceedingly interesting. Coal, iron and several kinds of stone and marble for building purposes exist in great abundance. A vast region, in the vicinity of Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, produces iron of the best quality, and exists in inexhaustible quantity. It is also found in other parts of the State. There is also lead, which has been mined in considerable quantities. Copper is found throughout the mineral region, but is found combined with other minerals. Silver is also combined with the lead ore. The bituminous coal deposits are mainly on both sides of the Missouri river, below the mouth of the Osage, and extending forty miles up that river. Cannel-coal is found in Callaway county.
Missouri possesses the advantages of two of the greatest navigable rivers in the United States-the Mississippi, which forms her entire eastern boundary, and the Missouri, which flows along her northwestern border nearly two hundred miles, and crosses the State in a south-easterly course to its junction with the Mississippi. As both of these rivers are navigable for the largest steamers, the State has easy and ready commercial intercourse to the Gulf of Mexico and the Rocky Mountains, as well as up the Ohio to Pittsburg. Besides the Missouri, the State has several important interior rivers, to-wit: Grand river and Chariton, tributaries of the Missouri river from the north, and the Osage and Gasconade from the south; also, Salt river and Maramec, tributaries of the Mississippi. The St. Francis and White river.
drain the southeastern part, passing from the State into Arkansas. The Osage is navigable for steamboats about 275 miles.
Missouri as a State has many material resources, fitting her for becoming one of the most wealthy and populous States in the Union. The soil is generally excellent, producing the finest crops, while those portions not so well adapted to agriculture are rich in minerals. The greater portion of the State is well timbered. In the river bottoms are heavy growths of oak, elm, ash, hickory, cottonwood, sugar, and white and black walnut. On the uplands also are found a great variety of trees. Various fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries and strawberries, are produced in the greatest abundance. Among the staple productions are Indian corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, hemp and tobacco. A great variety of other crops are also - raised.
The State has an uneven aud variable climate-the winters being very cold and the summers excessively hot. Chills and fever are common to some extent along the rivers.
The earliest settlement in Missouri seems to have been by the French, about the year 1719. About that time they built what was called Fort Orleans, near Jefferson City, and the next year worked the lead mines to some extent. Ste. Genevieve was settled in 1755, also by the French, and is the oldest town in the State. Missouri's greatest commercial metropolis, St. Louis, was first settled in 1764, the earliest settlers being mostly French.
water from St. Louis.
Jefferson City, the capital of the State, is situated on the right bank of the Missouri river, in Cole county. It is 128 miles by land, and 155 miles by The location being elevated, commands a fine view of the river, with the pleasant and picturesque scenery which is presented at this point on the Missouri.
St. Louis, the great commercial city of Missouri, as well as of a large portion of the Northwest, is situated on the right bank of the Mississippi, twenty miles below the mouth of the Missouri, and 174 above the mouth of the Ohio. It is 744 miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, and 1194 miles above New Orleans. The city enjoys many natural advantages as a commercial emporium, being situated nearly midway between the two oceans, and centrally in the finest agricultural region on the globe. With the greatest navigable river on the continent, affording her a water highway to the ocean, and to many of the large inland cities of the country, St. Louis is rapidly and surely going forward to a grand future. Her already great and constantly improving system of railways, is tending every year to open up to her larger fields of business and commercial intercourse. Of late years a strong rivalry has sprung up between St. Louis and Chicago, in regard to Population, etc., each claiming to be the third city in the Union. The inrease of St. Louis since the war has been great, the ascendency being at an nnual rate of about ten per cent. At this increase she is fast earning the onbriquet of the "Future Great City."
The site on which St. Louis stands was selected February 15th, 1764, by Laclede, as a post possessing peculiar advantages for collecting and trading n furs, as well as for defense against the Indians. For many years it was but a frontier village, the principal trade of which was in furs, buffalo robes, and other collections of trappers and hunters. A great part of the popula tion was absent during the hunting and trapping seasons, so that the infancy of this city was almost a struggle for existence. As late as 1820, the population was but 4,598. The first brick house was erected in 1813. In
1822, St. Louis was chartered as a city, under the title given by Laclede in in honor of Louis XV of France. In 1830 the population was 6,694, an increase of only 2,096 in ten years. In 1840 the population had reached 16,469; in 1850 it was 77,950, including 2,650 slaves; in 1860 the population was 160,773; and in 1870 it was 312,963.
Kansas City, one of the rapidly advancing young cities of the State, is situated on the Missouri river just below the mouth of the Kansas. In 1870 the population was 32,260. Since that time there has been a rapid increase, both in population and business.
St. Joseph is one of the flourishing cities, and is situated on the left, or east bank of the Missouri river, 496 miles by water from St. Louis. It was laid out in 1843, and became an important point of departure for overland emigration to California and Oregon. In 1870 the population was 19,560, but has rapidly increased since then,
Among the important and thriving towns and cities are Hannibal, Springfield, Boonville, Lexington, Chillicothe, Independence, Palmyra, Canton, Iron Mount and Moberly.
The following table shows the population of Missouri at the close of each decade, from 1810 to 1870:
*The aggregate for 1860 includes 20 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 1870 includes 75 enumerated as Indians.
EXPEDITION OF LEWIS AND CLARKE.
Organization of Exploring Party-Departure-Osage Indians-Strange Tradition of the Origin of the Osage Nation-The Missouris-Old French Fort-Artificial Mounds-The Ottoes and Pawnees-Indian Graves-The Ayauway Indians-Council with Indians at Council Bluffs-Little Sioux River-Death of Sergeant Floyd-Great Sioux River-Red Pipestone Quarries-Buffalo and other Animals-Mountain of the Little Spirits-Council with the Sioux-Indian Idols-The Mandans-Winter Quarters-White and Brown BearsAntelopes-Black Hills-First View of Rocky Mountains-Natural Scenery-The Great Falls of the Missouri-Shoshones-Sources of the Missouri-Columbia River-The Tushepaws-Short of Provisions-Pierced-Nose Indians-Down Lewis River-The SokulksGreat Falls of the Columbia-The Echeloots-Wooden Houses-Fingers as War Tropies - Sight of the Pacific-Fort Clatsop-Return-Arrival at St. Louis.
IN January, 1803, President Jefferson, in a confidential message to Congress in regard to Indian affairs, took occasion to recommend, among other things, the organization of a party to trace the Missouri river to its source, and thence proceed to the Pacific ocean. The recommendation was favorably considered, and Capt. Merriwether Lewis, was, on his own application, appointed to take charge of the expedition. Wm. Clarke was subsequently associated with him, so that this celebrated expedition is known in our history as that of Lewis and Clarke. The incidents of this long, tedious, and
romantic journey are worthy to be related as among the most interesting
in the annals of American adventure. At that time all that vast region bordering on the Upper Missouri and its tributaries, as well as the regions bordering on the Pacific, were unknown and unexplored by white men. By the latter part of the year 1803 the party comprising the expedition was made up and ready to start. The highest settlement of whites on the Missouri river at that time was at a place called La Charrette, sixty-eight miles above the mouth. At this place it had been the design of Capt. Lewis to winter, but the Spanish authorities of Louisiana had not yet received official information of the transfer of the country to the United States. For this reason the party remained in winter quarters at the mouth of Wood river, on the east side of the Mississippi.
Besides Captains Lewis and Clarke, the party was made up nine young men from Kentucky, twelve soldiers of the regular army, two Frenchmen as watermen and interpreters, and a colored servant belonging to Captain Clarke-twenty-six persons in all. A corporal, six soldiers and nine watermen, in addition to the above, were engaged to accompany the expedition as far as the country of the Mandans, as there was some apprehension of attacks by the Indians between Wood river and that tribe. Three boats were provided for the expedition. The largest was a keelboat, fifty-five feet long, drawing three feet of water, carrying one large square sail, and twenty-two oars. The other two were open boats, one of six, and the other of seven oars.
The expedition started from the encampment at the mouth of Wood river on Monday, May 14, 1804. Captain Lewis, who was at that time in St. Louis, joined the expedition at St. Charles, twenty-one miles up the Missouri, which place they reached on the 16th. Here they remained until the 21st, when they proceeded on their voyage, reaching La Charrette, the last white settlement, on the evening of the 25th. The village consisted of but seven poor families. On the 1st of June they arrived at the mouth of the Osage, one hundred and thirty-three miles on their journey. The country bordering on this river was inhabited by a tribe known as the Osage Indians. They had a remarkable tradition among them as to the origin of their nation. They believed that its founder was a snail passing a quiet existence along the banks of the Osage, till a flood swept him down to the Missouri and there left him exposed on the shore. By the heat of the sun he was changed to a man. The change, however, did not cause him to forget his native place away up on the banks of the Osage, and he immediately sought his old home. Being overtaken with hunger and fatigue, the Great Spirit appeared, gave him a bow and arrow, and taught him to kill deer and prepare its flesh for food and its skin for clothing. When he arrived at his original place of residence he was met by a beaver, who inquired who he was, and by what authority he came to disturb his possession. The Osage replied that he had once lived on the borders of that river and that it was his own home. While they were disputing the daughter of the beaver appeared, and entreated her father to be reconciled to the young stranger. The father yielded to her entreaties, and the Osage soon married the beaver's daughter. They lived happily on the banks of the Osage, and from them soon came the villages and nation of the Osages. Ever since they entertained a pious reverence for their ancestors, never killing a beaver, for by so doing they would slay a brother. It has been observed, however, that after the opening of the fur trade with the whites, the sanctity of their maternal relations was very much reduced.