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drain the southeistern part, passing from the State into Arkansas. The Osage is navigable for steamboats about 275 miles.
Missouri as a State has many material resources, fitting her for becoming one of the most wealthy and populous States in the Union. The soil is generally excellent, producing the finest crops, while those portions not so well
adapted to agriculture are rich in minerals. The greater portion of the State : is well timbered. In the river bottoms are heavy growths of oak, elm,
ash, hickory, cottonwood, sngar, and white and black walnut. On the r aplands also are found a great variety of trees. Various fruits, including - apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries and strawberries, are produced in the
greatest abundance. Among the staple productions are Indian corn, wheat, :7 oats
, potatoes, hemp and tobacco. A great variety of other crops are also - raised.
The State has an uneven aud vatiable climate—the winters being very cold and the summers excessively hot. Chills and fever are common to some extent along the rivers. The earliest settlement in Missouri seems to have been by the French, about
About that time they built what was called Fort Orleans, near Jefferson City, and the next year worked the lead mines to some extent. Ste. Genevieve was settled in 1755, also by the French, and is the oldest town in the State. Missouri's greatest commercial metropolis, St. Louis, was first settled in 1764, the earliest settlers being mostly French.
Jefferson City, the capital of the State, is situated on the right bank of the Missouri river, in Cole county. It is 128 miles by land, and 155 miles by water from St. Louis. The location being elevated, commands a fine view of the river, with the pleasant and picturesque scenery which is presented at this point on the Missouri. St. Louis, the great commercial city of Missouri, as well as of a large portion of the Northwest, is situated on the right bank of the Mississippi, twenty miles below the mouth of the Missouri, and 174 above the mouth of the Ohio. It is 744 miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, and 1194 miles above New Orleans. The city enjoys many natural advantages as a commercial emporium, being situated nearly midway between the two oceans, and centrally in the finest agricultural region on the globe. With the greatest navigable river on the continent, affording her a water highway to the ocean, and to many of the large inland cities the country, St. Louis is rapidly and surely going forward to a grand future. Her already great and constantly improving system of railways, is tending every year to open up to her larger fields of business and commercial intercourse. Of late years a strong rivalry has sprung up between St. Louis and Chicago, in regard to ropulation, etc., each claiming to be the third city in the Union. The increase of St. Louis since the war has been great, the ascendency being at an ennual rate of about ten per cent. At this increase she is fast earning the wubriquet of the “ Future Great City."
The site on which St. Louis stands was selected February 15th, 1764, by Laclede, as a post possessing peculiar advantages for collecting and trading in fours, as well as for defense against the Indians. For many years it was but a frontier village, the principal trade of which was in furs, buffalo robes, and other collections of trappers and hunters. A great part of the population was absent during the hunting and trapping seasons, so that the infaucy of this city was almost a struggle for existence. As late as 1820, the population was but 4,598. The first brick house was erected in 1813. In 1822, St. Louis was chartered as a city, under the title given by Laclede in in honor of Louis XV of France. In 1830 the population was 6,694, an increase of only 2,096 in ten years. In 1840 the population had reached 16,469; in 1850 it was 77,950, including 2,650 slaves; in 1860 the population was 160,773 ; and in 1870 it was 312,963.
Kansas City, one of the rapidly advancing young cities of the State, is situated on the Missouri river just below the mouth of the Kansas. In 1870 the population was 32,260. Since that time there has been a rapid increase, both in population and business.
St. Joseph is one of the flourishing cities, and is situated on the left, or east bank of the Missouri river, 496 miles by water from St. Louis. It was laid out in 1843, and became an important point of departure for overland | emigration to California and Oregon. In 1870 the population was 19,560, but has rapidly increased since then,
Among the important and thriving towns and cities are Hannibal, Springfield, Boonville, Lexington, Chillicothe, Independence, Palmyra, Canton, Iron Mount and Moberly.
The following table shows the population of Missouri at the close of each decade, from 1810 to 1870 :
118,503 *1,182,012 1870...
118.071 *1,721,295 * The aggregate for 1860 includes 20 enumerated as Indians, and the aggregate for 1870 includes 75 enumerated as Indians.
EXPEDITION OF LEWIS AND CLARKE.
Organization of Exploring Party-Departure -Osage Indians-Strange Tradition of the Origin of the Osage Nation-The Missouris-Old French Fort-Artificial Mounds, The Ottoes and Pawnees-Indian Graves - The Ayauway Indians-Council with Indians at Council Bluffs-Little Sioux River-Death of Sergeant Floyd-Great Sioux River-Red Pipestone Quarries—Buffalo and other Animals, Mountain of the Little Spirits-Council with the Sioux-Indian Idols—The Mandans-Winter Quarters-White and Brown BearsAntelopes—Black Hills-First View of Rocky Mountains-Natural Scenery- The Great Falls of the Missouri-Shoshones-Sources of the Missouri-Columbia River—The Tushepaws-Short of Provisions—Pierced-Nose Indians-Down Lewis River— The SokulksGreat Falls of the Columbia-The Echeloots-Wooden Houses-Fingers as War Tropies - Sight of the Pacific-Fort Clatsop-Return-Arrival at St. Louis.
In January, 1803, President Jefferson, in a confidential message to Congress in regard to Indian affairs, took occasion to recommend, among other things, the organization of a party to trace the Missouri river to its source, and thence proceed to the Pacitic ocean. The recommendation was favorably considered, and Capt. Merriwether Lewis, was, on his own application, appointed to take charge of the expedition. Wm. Clarke was subsequently associated with him, so that this celebrated expedition is known in our history as that of Lewis and Clarke. The incidents of this long, tedious, and romantic journey are worthy to be related as among the most interesting
in the annals of American adventure. At that time all that vast region wrdering on the Upper Missouri and its tributaries, as well as the regions bordering on the Pacitic, were unknown and unexplored by white men. By the latter part of the year 1803 the party comprising the expedition was made up and ready to start. The highest settlement of whites on the Missouri river at that time was at a place called La Charrette, sixty-eight miles above the mouth. At this place it had been the design of Capt. Lewis to winter, but the Spanish authorities of Louisiana had not yet received official information of the transfer of the country to the United States. For this reason the party remained in winter quarters at the mouth of Wood river, on the east side of the Mississippi.
Besides Captains Lewis and Clarke, the party was made up nine young men from Kentucky, twelve soldiers of the regular army, two Frenchmen as watermen and interpreters, and a colored servant belonging to Captain Clarke-twenty-six persons in all. A corporal, six soldiers and nine watermen, in addition to the above, were engaged to accompany the expedition as far as the country of the Mandans, as there was some apprehension of attacks by the Indians between Wood river and that tribe.
Three boats were provided for the expedition. The largest was a keelboat, fifty-five feet long, drawing three feet of water, carrying one large square sail, and twenty-two oars. The other two were open boats, one of six, and the other of seven oars.
The expedition started from the encampment at the mouth of Wood river on Monday, May 14, 180+. Captain Lewis, who was at that time in St. Louis, joined the expedition at St. Charles, twenty-one miles up the Missouri, which place they reached on the 16th. Here they remained until the 21st, when they proceeded on their voyage, reaching La Charrette, the last white settlement, on the evening of the 25th. The village consisted of but seven poor families. On the 1st of June they arrived at the mouth of the Osage, one hundred and thirty-three miles on their journey. The country bordering on this river was inhabited by a tribe known as the Osage Indians. They had a remarkable tradition among them as to the origin of their nation. They believed that its founder was a snail passing a quiet existence along the banks of the Osage, till a flood swept hinı down to the Missouri and there left him exposed on the shore. By the heat of the sun he was changed to a man. The change, however, did not cause him to forget
, his native place away up on the banks of the Osage, and he immediately songht his old home. Being overtaken with hunger and fatigne, the Great Spirit appeared, gave him a bow and arrow, and taught him to kill deer and prepare its flesh for food and its skin for clothing. When he arrived at his original place of residence he was met by a beaver, who inquired who he was, and by what authority he came to disturb his possession. The Osage replied that he had once lived on the borders of that river and that it was his own home. While they were disputing the daughter of the beaver appeared, and entreated her father to be reconciled to the young stranger. The father yielded to her entreaties, and the Osage soon married the beaver's danghter. They lived happily on the banks of the Osage, and from them soon came the villages and nation of the Osages. Ever since they entertained a pious reverence for their
ancestors, never killing a beaver, for by so doing they would slay a brother. It has been observed, however, that after the opening of the fur trade with the whites, the sanctity of their maternal relations was very much reduced.
The next tribe mentioned by the explorers was that of the Missouris, once a powerful nation, but then reduced to about thirty families. They finally united with the Osages and the Ottoes, and as a separate nation became extinct. The Sauks, Ayauways (Iowas), and the Sioux are mentioned as being the enemies of the Osages, and as making frequent excursions against them. On the 26th of June they arrived at the mouth of the Kansas, 340 iniles from the Mississippi, where they remained two days for rest and repairs. Here resided the tribe of Indians of the same name, and had two villages not far from the mouth of the river. This tribe at that time had been re. duced by the Sauks and Ayauways to only about three hundred men. The party at this stage of their journey, saw numerous buffalo on the prairies. On the 2d of July the party passed Bear Medicine Island, near which were the remains of an old fort, built by the French, the ruins of the chimneys and the general outline of the fortification being visible. On the 8th of July they reached the mouth of the Nodawa. The river is mentioned as navigable for boats some distance. On the 11th they landed at the mouth of the Nemahaw. Mention is made of several artificial mounds on the Nemahaw, about two miles up the stream at the mouth of a small creek. From the top of the highest mound there was a tine view of the country. On the 14th they passed the Nishnahbatona river, finding it to be only three bundred yards from the Missouri at a distance of twelve miles from its mouth. Platte river and other streams, both in Iowa and Nebraska, are mentioned and the country described with great accuracy. Along in this part of the country were the first elk they had seen.
On the 22d of July the explorers encamped on the north (Iowa) side of the river, ten miles above the mouth of the Platte river, to inake observations and to hold an interview with the neighboring tribes. They remained here in camp until the 27th. Among the streams mentioned in this vicinity are the Papillon, Butterfly Creek and Moscheto Creek, the last named being a small stream near Council Bluffs. In mentioning them we use the orthography of the explorers, which in some instances differs from that now in use. The Indians who occupied the country about the mouth of Platte river at this time were the Ottoes and Pawnees. The Ottoes were much reduced, and formerly lived about twenty miles above the Platte on the Nebraska side of the river. They lived at this time under the protection of the Pawnees. The latter were also much dispersed and broken. One band of the nation forinerly lived on the Republican branch of the Kanzas River. Another band were the Pawnee Loups, or Wolf Pawnees, who resided on the Wolf fork of the Platte. Another band originally resided on the Kanzas and Arkansaw, but in their wars with the "Osages they were often defeated and retired to the Red river. Various other tribes living further west, are mentioned. On the 27th they continued their journey, and about ten leagues from their encampment, on the south (Nebraska) side of the river, they saw and examined a curious collection of graves, or inounds. They were of different heights, shapes and sizes. Some were of sand, and others of both earth and sand. They were supposed to indicate the position of the ancient village of the Ottoes before they retired to the protection of the Pawnees. On the 29th they passed the spot where the Ayauway Indians, a branch of the Ottoes, once lived, and who had emigrated from that place to the Des Moines. Mention is here made of an interview with one of the Missouri Indians who lived with the Ottoes, and the resemblance of his language to that of the Osages, particularly in calling a chief inca.
On the 30th of July the party encamped on the south (Nebraska) side of the river. At that place next to the river was a plain, and back of it a wooded ridge, rising about seventy feet above the plain. At the edge of this ridge they formed their camp, and sent an invitation to the Indians to meet them. From the bluffs at this point they mention a most beautiful view of the river and adjoining country. The latitude of the camp was determined by observation to be 41 degrees 18 minutes and 14 seconds. The messenger sent to invite the Ottoes returned on the evening of the 2d of August, with fourteen Ottoe and Missouri Indians, accompanied by a Frenchman who resided among them, and who acted as interpreter. Lewis and Clarke made them presents of pork, flour and meal, and the Indians returned presents of watermelons. The next morning (Aug. 3d) a council was held with the six chiefs who were of the party of Indians; they were told of the change in the government, and promised protection and advised as to their future conduct. All the chiefs expressed their joy at the change in the government, and wished to be recommended to the Great Father (the President) that they might obtain trade and necessaries. They asked the mediation of the Great Father between them and the Mahas (Omahas), with whom they were then at war. At the conclusion of the council medals and other presents were given to the chiefs, and also some presents to the other Indians who were with them. The grand chief of the Ottoes was not present, but to him was sent a flag, a medal, and some ornaments for clothing. The explorers gave to the place where this council was held the name of Council Bluffs. The reader will remember, however, that it was above the present city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, and was on the Nebraska side of the river.
Ön the afternoon of the 3d of August they resumed their journey, and on the 7th arrived at the mouth of a river on the north side, called by the Sioux Indians, Eaneahwadepon (Stone river), and by the French, Petite Riviere des Siour, or in English, Little Sioux river. The explorers were informed by their interpreter (M. Durion) that this river rises within about nine miles of the Des Moines; that within fifteen leagues of that river it passes through a large lake, nearly sixty miles in circumference, and divided into two parts by rocks, which approach each other very closely. Its width is various; it contains many islands, and is known by the name of Lac d' Esprit-Spirit Lake. The country watered by it is open and undulating, and may be visited in boats up the river for some distance. The interpreter further added that the Des Moines was about eighty yards wide where the Little Sioux ap proaches it; that it was shoally, and that one of its principal branches was called Cat river. The interpreter claimed to have been to the sources of the Little Sioux, and those who are familiar with the country about Spirit Lake, will concede that he described it quite accurately. The explorers speak of a long island two miles above the mouth of the Little Sioux, which they named Pelican island, from the large number of pelicans which were feeding on it, one of which they killed. They also killed an elk. On the 10th they passed the first highland near the river, after leaving their encampment at Council Bluffs. Not far from this, on a high bluff, was the grave of Blackbird, one of the great chiefs of the Mahas, who had died of small-pox fonr years before. The grave was marked by a mound twelve feet in diameter at the base, and six feet high, and was on an elevation about 300 feet above the water. In the center of the grave was a pole eight feet high. Near this the Mahas had a village, and lost four hundred men of their nation, and a like proportion of women and children by the small-pox at the time that Blackbird died.