« PředchozíPokračovat »
people of a mild and peaceable disposition. Fish was their principal article of food. On the 18th they resumed their journey down the Columbia in the presence of many of the Sokulks who came to witness their departure. They passed many different tribes who inhabited the borders of the Colum. bia, all of whom they visited in their villages and encampments, learning their condition, habits, history and mode of living. Wherever they haltod large numbers of Indians gathered to see them, and generally manifested the greatest kindness and hospitality. All of them had pierced noses.
On the 22d of October the party reached the Great Falls of the Columbia. Many Indians inhabited this portion of the country, and some of them assisted the party in unloading the canoes, transporting the goods around the falls, and in bringing down the canoes. At one place it was necessary to haul the canoes over a point of land to avoid a perpendicular fall of seventy feet. Some distance below the falls they came to a village of another tribe, or nation, called the Echeloots. Here they found the first wooden houses they had seen after leaving the settlements near the Mississippi. They were made of logs and poles, with poles for rafters and covered with white cedar, kept on by strands of cedar fibres. The inhabitants received the strangers with great kindness, invited them to their houses, and came in great nunbers to see them. They were surprised to find that these Indians spoke a language quite different from that of the tribes above the Great Falls. Some of their customs, however, were the same. Like the tribes they had recently visited, they flattened the heads of their children, and in nearly the same manner. Among the mountain tribes, however, this custom was confined to the females almost exclusively, whereas the Echeloots subjected both sexes to the operation. On the 18th they came to another tribe where they saw a British musket and several brass tea-kettles which the Indians prized very highly. In the interview with the chief he directed his wife to hand hiin his medicine-bag, from which he drew out fourteen forefingers, which he said had belonged to the same number of his enemies whom he had killed in battle. These fingers were shown with great exultation, after which they were carefully replaced among the other valuable contents of the medicine-bag. This was the first instance in which the explorers had observed that any other trophy than the scalp was ever carried from the field in Indian warfare.
On the 2d of November the party passed the rapids which forin the last descent of the Columbia, and tide-water commences. On this part of the Columbia they began to meet with tribes who had some knowledge of the whites, and from articles in their possession, it was observed that they had maintained some sort of trade or barter with the whites. The Indians here also began to be troublesome and were disposed to pilfer whenever an opportunity offered, showing that in their intercourse with the whites they had contracted some vices that they are free from in the absence of such intercourse.
On the 16th of November, 1805, the expedition encamped in full view of the Pacific Ocean, at Haley's Bay, as laid down by Vancouver. Their long, tedious and eventful journey to the Pacific having ended, they made preparations for going into winter quarters. Some distance below the mouth of the Columbia, three miles above the month of a little river that empties into the bay, in a thick grove of lofty pines, they formed their winter encampment. Game was exceedingly plenty, and during the winter they were visited by a large number of the Indians inhabiting the coast region. They called the place Fort Clatsop, from the tribe of Indians inhabiting the imine
diate vicinity. IIere they remained until the 23d of March, 1806, when they commenced their return, by the same route.
Before leaving, Captains Lewis and Clarke posted up in the fort a note to the following effect:
“The object of this is, that through the medium of some civilized person, who may see the saine, it may be made known to the world that the party consisting of the persons whose names are hereto annexed, and who were sent out by the government of the United States to explore the interior of the continent of North America, did cross the same by the way of the Missouri and Columbia rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the Pacific ocean, where they arrived on the 14th day of November, 1805, and departed the 23d day of March, 1806, on their return to the United States, by the same route by which they came out.”
It is somewhat singular that this note a short time after fell into the hands of a Captain Hill, while on the coast near the mouth of the Columbia river. It was delivered to him by some Indians, and taken to Canton, China, from whence it was brought to the United States in January, 1807. On the 232 of September, 1806, the party reached the mouth of the Missouri, and decended the Mississippi to St. Louis, arriving at 12 o'clock. Ilaving tired a salute, they went on shore, where they “received a most hearty and hospitable welcome from the whole village.”
This is but a very partial and hasty review of that romantic and extraordinary expedition—the first exploration by authority of the government of the United States, of that wonderful region which of late years has attracted so much attention. It gave to the world the first authentic account of the npper Missouri and its tributaries, and of the rivers that flow from the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains and seek the Pacific Ocean through the great Columbia. It imparted to civilized man some definite knowledge of the strange tribes whose hoines were on the borders of those rivers; of their habits, traditions and modes of life; of the fauna and flora of a region hitherto unknown, and of natural scenery not surpassed in grandenr and sublimity by that of any other part of the world. Other explorers have since revealed a portion of the hidden treasures of that part of our national domain, but the pioneer expeditien of Lewis and Clarke, so successfully accomplished, will always possess a peculiar and thrilling interest.
SKETCH OF CHICAGO.
First White Visitors, The Name - Jean Baptiste-John Kinzie-Ft. Dearborn-Evacuation
The Massacre-Heroic Women--Capt. Heald-Capt. Wells-Scalping the Wounded-Ft Dearborn Re-built-Illinois and Michigan Canal-Chicago Laid Out-Removal of Indians-City Organization-Pioneer Religious Societies-Public Improvements-Location of City-Growth-The Great Fire-Rise of the New Chicago.
Tie history of so great a city as Chicago, like that of London, or Paris or New York, by reason of its commercial, financial and other relations to the world at large, is a history of world-wide interest. Not that Chicag inay yet be compared in size, population or wealth with the great citie nained, would we mention it in connection with them, and yet, considering its age, it is greater than either of them. In its ratio of increase in popu lation, commerce, and general progress, it is to-day outstripping them. 11 what civilized part of the globe is Chicago not heard of, read of, and known
If, so many centuries after the founding of Rome, mankind still feel interested in the mythical story of Romulus and Remus, may not the present and future generations read with equal interest the more authentic story of the founding of a great modern city?
The Jesuit missionary and explorer, Marquette, first visited the place where Chicago is located, in 1673. Again, in the winter of 1674–5, he camped near the site of the present city, from December until near the close of March. Upon his arrival, in December, the Chicago river was frozen over, and the ground covered with snow. The name is of Indian origin, and was applied to the river. By the French voyageurs it is variously spelled, the majority rendering it Chicagou. The place is mentioned by Berrot in 1770.
In 1796, Jean Baptiste, a trader from the West Indies, found his way to the mouth of the little stream known as Chicago river, and engaged in trad
. ing with the Indians. Here for eight years, almost alone, he maintained trade and intercourse with the savages, until, in 1804, Fort Dearborn was erected, and a trading post was established by John Kinzie, who became the successor of Jean Baptiste. Fort Dearborn, as first constructed, was a very rude and primitive stockade, which cost the government only about fifty dollars. It stood on the south bank of Chicago river, half a mile from the lake. The few soldiers sent to erect and garrison it were in charge of Major Whistler. For a time, being unable to procure grain for bread, the soldiers were obliged to subsist in part upon acorns. The original settler, Jean Baptiste, or as his full name was written, Jean Baptiste Point au Sable, sold his cabin to Mr. Kinzie, and the latter erected on the site the building known to the early settlers as the “Kinzie IIouse.” This became a resort for the officers and others connected with the garrison. In 1812 the garrison had a force of 54 men, under the command of Capt. Nathan Heald, with Lieutenant Lenai L. Helm and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. The only white residents, except the officers and soldiers, at that time, were Mr: Kinzie and his family, the wives of Capt. Heald and Lieut. Helm, and a few Canadians, with their families. Nearly up to this time the most friendly relations had been maintained with the Indians—the principal tribes by whom they were surrounded being the Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes. The battle of Tippecanoe had been fought the year before, and the influence of Tecumseh began to be observable in the conduct of the Indians. They were also aware of the difficulties between the United States and Great Britian, and had yielded to the influences brought to bear by the latter. In April of this year, suspicious parties of Winnebagoes began to hover about the fort, remaining in the vicinity for several days. The inhabitants became alarmed, and the families took refuge in the fort. On the 7th of August 2 Pottawattamie chief appeared at the fort with an order or dispatch from Gen. Hull, at Detroit, directing Capt. IIeald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and distribute all the government property to the neighboring Indians. The chief who brought the dispateh advised Capt. Ileald to make no distribntion to the Indians. He told him it wonld be better to leave the fort and stores as they were, and that while the Indians were distributing the stores among themselves, the whites might escape to Fort Wayne. On the 12th of August Capt. Heald held a council with the Indians, but the other officers refused to join him. They feared treachery on the part of the Indians, and indeed liad been informed that their intention was to murder the white people. In the conncil Capt. Ileald had taken the precaution to open a port-hole displaying
a cannon directed upon the council, and probably by that means kept the Indians from molesting him at that time. Acting under the advice of Mr. Kinzie, he withheld the ammunition and arms from the Indians, throwing them, together with the liquors, into the Chicago river. On that day Black Partridge, a friendly chief, said to Capt. Heald: “Linden birds have been singing in my ears to-day; be careful on the march you are going to take.” On the 13th the Indians discovered the powder floating on the surface of the water, a discovery which had the effect to exasperate them the more, and they began to indulge in threats. Meantime preparations were made to leave the fort.
Capt. Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, had been adopted by the famous Miarni warrior, Little Turtle, and had become chief of a band of Mianis. On the 14th he was seen approaching with a band of his Miami warriors, coming to assist Capt. Heald in defending the fort, having at Fort Wayne lieard of the danger which threatened the garrison and the settlers. But all means for detending the fort had been destroyed the night before. All, therefore, took up their line of march, with Capt, Wells and his Miamis in the lead, followed by Capt. Heald, with his wife riding by his side. Mr, Kinzie had always been on the most friendly terms with the Indians, and still hoped that his personal efforts might influence them to allow the whites to leave unmolested. He determined to accompany the expedition, leaving his family in a boat in the care of a friendly Indian. In case any misfortune should happen to him, his family was to be sent to the place where Niles, Michigan, is now located, where he had another trading post. Along the shore of Lake Michigan slowly marched the little band of whites, with a friendly escort of Pottawattamies, and Capt. Wells and his Miamis, the latter in advance. When they had reached what were known as the “Sand Hills,” the Miami advance guard came rushing back, Capt. Wells exclaiming, “They are about to attack; form instantly.” At that moment a shower of bullets came whistling over the sand hills, behind which the Indians had concealed themselves for the murderous attack. The cowardly Miamis were panic-stricken, and took to fight, leaving their heroic leader to his fate. He was at the side of his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the attack was made, and, after expressing to her the utter hopelessness of their situation, dashed into the fight. There were 54 soldiers, 12 civilians and three women, all poorly armed, against 500 Indian warriors. The little band had no alternative but to sell their lives as dearly as possible. They charged upon their murderous assailants, and drove them from their position back to the prairie. There the conflict continued until two-thirds of the whites were killed and wounded. Mrs. Heald, Mrs Helm and Mrs. (Iolt, all took part in the combat. In a wagon were twelve children, and a painted demon tomahawked them all, seeing which, Capt. Wells exclaimed, “If butchering women and child dren is your game, I will kill too,” and then spurred his horse toward the Indian carnp, where they had left their squaws and papooses. He was pursued by several young warriors, who sent bullets whistling about him, killing his horse and wounding Capt Wells. They attempted to take him a prisoner, but he resolved not to be taken alive. Calling a young chief a squaw, an epithet which excites the fiercest resentment in an Indian warrior, tsie young chief instantly tomahawked him.
The three women fought as bravely as the soldiers. Mrs. Heald was an expert in the use of the rifle, but received several severe wounds. During the conflict the hand of a savage was raised to tomahawk her, when she ex