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same species. Foreigners turn to good account this foolish rage of ours for everything novel and monstrous and unnatural, more worthy of Japan and China than of England, by imposing upon the credulous seeds and cuttings of yellow moss-roses, and scarlet laburnums, and fragrant pæonies, and such like.

Strange things too have been attempted in garden ornaments. We have spoken of water-works, like the copper tree at Chatsworth, to drench the unwary; and the Chinese have, in the iniddle of their lawns, ponds covered with some water-weed that looks like grass, so that a stranger is plunged in over head and ears while he thinks he is setting his foot upon the turf. In the ducal gardens at Saxe-Gotha is a ruined castle, which was built complete, and then ruined exprès by a few sharp rounds of artillery! Stanislaus, in the grounds of Lazienki, had a broad walk flanked by pedestals upon which living figures, dressed or undressed after the manner of the antients,' were placed on great occasions. The floating gardens, or Chinampas, of Mexico, are mentioned both by Clavigero and Humboldt. They are formed on wickerwork, and when a proprietor wishes for a little change, or to rid himself of a troublesome neighbour, he has only to set his paddles at work, or lug out his towing-rope, and betake himself to some more agreeable part of the lake. We wonder that the barbaric magnificence which piled up mimic pyramids, and Chinese watch-towers, and mock Stonehenges, never bethought itself of imitating these poetical Chinampas. It was one of Napoleon's bubble schemes to cover in the gardens of the Tuileries with glass — those gardens which were turned into potato-ground during the Revolution, though the agent funnily complains that the Directory never paid him for the sets ! One of the most successful pieces of magnificent gardening is the new conservatory at Chatsworth, with a carriage-drive through the centre, infinitely more perfect, though we suppose not so extensive as the covered winter-garden at Potemkin's palace of Taurida, near St. Peters. burgh, which is described as a semicircular conservatory attached to the hall of the palace, wherein the walks wander amidst flowery hedges, and fruit-bearing shrubs, winding over little hills,' -in fact a complete garden, artificially heated, and adorned with the usual embellishments of busts and vases. When this mighty man in his travels halted, if only for a day, his travelling pavilion was erected, and surrounded by a garden à l'Anglaise !

composed of trees and shrubs, and divided by gravel walks, and ornamented with seats and statues, all carried forward with the cavalcade!' We ought in fairness to our readers to add that Sir John Carr, notorious by another less honourable prænomen, is the authority for this; though, indeed, his statement is authenti


cated by Mr. Loudon (Encyc. Gard. sect. 842). We have heard of the effect of length being given to an avenue by planting the more distant trees nearer and nearer together; but among gardening crotchets we have never yet seen a children's garden as we think it might be made-beds, seats, arbours, moss-house, all in miniature, with dwarf shrubs and fairy roses, and other flowers of only the smallest kind; or it might be laid out on turf, to suit the intellectual spirit of the age, like a map of the two hemispheres.

It is time that we pass to that portion of our subject which is generally considered under the peculiar patronage of the ladies. Evelyn, a name never to be mentioned by gardeners without reverence, says somewhere, in describing an English place which he had visited, My lady skilled in the flowery part; my lord in diligence of planting ;' and this is a division of country labour which almost universal consent and practice have sanctioned. The gardens at Wimbledon House and Ealing Park (we dare not trust ourselves to take a wider view, or we know not where to stop) are alone enough to show what the knowledge and taste of our countrywomen can achieve in their own department; and with the assistance of Mrs. Loudon, the fair possessors of the smallest plot of garden-ground may now emulate on an humbler scale these splendid examples.

In her Gardening for Ladies,' Mrs. Loudon, indeed, initiates them far beyond the mere culture of flowers, and those lighter labours which have usually been assigned to the amateur. enters into practical details in real good earnest, gives directions to her lady-gardeners to dig and manure their own parterres-on this latter subject there is no mincing of the matter--and calls à spade a spade. Perhaps she satisfies herself that, if not a feminine, this has at least been a royal pastime, and so throws in the weight of King Laertes in Homer * to balance the scale. But really, what with our nitrate of soda, bone-dust, gypsum, guano, all our new patent pocket-manures, portable, compressed, crystalline, liquid, desiccated, disinfected, and the rest of them, we are by no means sure that this most neces

essary but rather disagreeable portion of horticulture may not soon be performed by the same delicate nerves that have hitherto fainted at the mention of it.

Ten years ago, when our authoress married Mr. Loudon, it

According to Cicero, De Sen. c. 15. "Homerus Laertem lenientem desiderium, quod capiebat e filio, colentem agrum, et eum stercorantem facit.' 'Memoriæ lapsu,' say the critics, the passage in Odys. w. 226, not bearing out this meauing. But in line 241 of the same book, the è upincéexams may imply the renewal as well as the loosening of the soil. We should venture to translate it by the word ' mulching.'


was impossible,' she says, 'to imagine any person more completely ignorant of everything relating to plants and gardening than herself. She has been certainly an apt scholar, and no expert reviewer can doubt there is some truth in her remark that her very recent ignorance makes her a better instructor of beginners, from the recollection of her own wants in a similar situation. One wrinkle of hers we recommend strongly to our fair readers, the gardening gauntlet,* described and pictured in page 10. We have seen this in use, and can assure them that it is far from an inelegant, and certainly a most comfortable assistant in all the operations of the garden. Let us also add a contrivance of our own, a close-woven wicker-basket, on two very low wheels, similar to those used at the Euston Square and most railway stations for moving luggage, only on a smaller scale: it is much more useful than a wheelbarrow for carrying away cuttings, dead leaves, and rubbish of all kinds.

There are in this volume many excellent general directions for the ordinary garden labours, some of which we shall notice, interweaving them with further observations of our own.

Watering is the mainstay of horticulture in hot climates. When King Solomon, in the vanity of his mind, made him ‘gardens and orchards,' he made him also pools of water to water therewith the wood that bringeth forth trees ;' and the prophets frequently compare the spiritual prosperity of the soul to a watered garden. It is with us also a most necessary operation, but very little understood. Most young gardeners conceive that the water for their plants cannot be too fresh and cold; and many a pail of water ilat has stood in the sun is thrown away in order to bring one • fresh from the ambrosial fount.' A greater mistake could not be made. Rain-water is best of all; and dirty and stagnant water, and of a high temperature—anything is better than cold spring

Mrs. Loudon recommends pump-water to be exposed in open tubs before it is used, and to be stirred about to impregnate it with air; perhaps the addition of liquid manure or any other extraneous matter would be useful. Those who have found how little service their continual watering has done to their plants in a dry summer would do well to attend to these simple rules.

Lawns and gravel-walks, the pride of English gardens, can hardly have too much care bestowed upon them. Oftentimes more of the beauty of a garden depends on the neatness with which these are kept than even on the flowers themselves. Great


* Here, again, our old friend Laertes meets us. Truly there is nothing new under the sun. He had his gardening gloves before • Miss Perry of Stroud,' celebrated by Mrs. Loudon as the inventor of them :Χειρίδας τέτι χερσί, βάτων ένεκα.- Οd. . 229.


The grass

attention should be paid to the kinds of grass-seeds which are sown for new lawns. The horticultural seedsmen have selections made for this purpose.

We must refer our readers to Mrs. Loudon's 9th chapter; but let them be sure not to omit the sweet-scented spring-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), which gives its delicious fragrance to new-made hay. Lime-water will get rid of the worms when they infest the lawn in great quantities; but perhaps it is as well not to destroy them altogether. Most gardeners strive to eradicate the moss from their grass : it seems to us that it should rather be encouraged : it renders the lawn much more soft to the foot, prevents its being dried up in hot weather, and saves much labour in mowing. The most perfect kind of lawn is perhaps that which consists of only one kind of grass; but for the generality a mossy surface would be far better than the mangy, bare aspect we so often see. should never be mown without having also its edges trimmed. We have seen in some places a small slope of grass filling up the right angle usually left between the turf and gravel, and we think it an improvement.

The smoothness and verdure of our lawns is the first thing in our gardens that catches the eye of a foreigner; the next is the fineness and firmness of our gravel-walks. The foundation of them should always be thoroughly drained. Weeds may be destroyed by salt; but it must be used cautiously. No walk should be less than 7 feet broad. For terraces, a common rule given is, that they should be twice the breadth that the house is high. Though, of course, it is enough for a lover's walk'—without which no country place is perfect—to accommodate a duad, yet, be it in what part of the grounds it may, every path should be broad enough to admit three persons walking abreast.

Who cannot call to mind many an awkward feeling and position where want of breadth in a garden-walk or wood-path has called into play some unsocial precedence

forced into notice some sly predilection ? And who likes to be the unfortunate lag-behind-the last in a wood ?

The edging of borders is always a difficult affair to manage well. Box, the commonest, and perhaps the best, is apt to harbour slugs, and get shabby, unless closely attended to. The gentianella, where it flourishes well, is a beautiful edge-flower. Thrift, of which there is a new and handsome variety, was once (like its namesake) much more in vogue than it is now, and deserves to be restored. We have seen very pretty edgings made of dwarf oaks clipped; nothing could look neater; but it seemed like robbing the forest. Worst of all are large rugged flints, used commonly where they abound, and in small area-gardens. In a symmetrical garden,


and where they harmonise with the house, strips of stone-work might be introduced; and we think that a tile might be designed of better shape and colour than any we have yet seen.

On the minor decorations of the garden, such as rock-work, moss-houses, and rustic seats, &c., Mrs. Loudon gives some very good hints, though we should be sorry to set up on our lawn the specimen baskets which embellish pp. 357 and 358; but, in truth, these things, contrary to the common rule, usually look better in reality than on paper. Where beds of irregular wavy lines are required to be made, we have found nothing better than a good thick rope, which, thrown at random on the ground, will, with a little adjustment, give a bold and natural outline that it would be difficult to work out otherwise in tenfold the time.

The second work of Mrs. Loudon's on our list is in alphabetical arrangement, and exclusively devoted to flowers. In all our references to this book for practical purposes and for the present paper, we have scarcely once been disappointed. Though chiefly a book of reference, it is written in so easy a style and so perfectly free from pedantry, that, open it at what page we may, there is something to instruct, interest, and amuse. The practical directions are necessarily very compressed, but nothing of importance seems omitted. The greatest · Ignorama'* in flowers could not have this volume on her table long without having every doubt and difficulty removed. We know of no book of the kind so likely to spread a knowledge of, and taste for, flower-gardening as this. With the addition of the botanical volume of Dr. Lindley, Mr. Paxton, or Mrs. Loudon, the beginner's gardening library would be complete. He would afterwards like to add the Encyclopædias of Plants and Gardening; the first of which is a typographical as well as scientific wonder, the second a perfect treasure-house of information on every subject connected with horticulture.

The rapid progress made in horticultural studies we have already alluded to in the immense increase of works devoted to these subjects. All the books set down at the head of the present article are good in their several ways, but we have purposely confined ourselves to those addressed to ladies and treating immediately of flowers. And it is this particular turn which gardening taste at the present moment is taking. We first had the Herbalist with his simples, * temperature' of every plant given, hot or cold in the second or the third degree--and a table of virtues' for both body and mind against the falling-sickness '--to glue together greene wounds'

to comfort the heart, to drive away care, and increase the joy * So, appropriately enough, signs herself a fair correspondent of one of our gardening Journals. We think this quite equal to Mr. Hume's Omnibi.'


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