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the evergreen barberry, the ilex in all its varieties, and hardy ferns, bordering the green drive which leads to the wilder part of the plantations. Here, in the words of Bacon, “Trees I would have none in it, but some thicket made only of sweet-briar and honeysuckle, and some wild vine amongst ; and the ground set with violets, strawberries, and primroses, for these are sweet, and prosper in the shade, and these are to be in the heath here and there, not in any order. I like also little heaps, in the nature of mole-hills (such as are in wild heaths), to be set with wild thyme."

' Another broad drive of greensward dips from the lawn into the darkest and most tangled part of the wood : here, through a long vista, you catch a glimpse of the American shrubbery below. Rhododendrons, azaleas, calmias, magnolias, andromedas, daphnes, heaths, and bog-plants of every species in their genial soil, form a mass of splendid colouring during the spring months, while, even in winter, their dark foliage forms an evergreen mass for the eye to rest upon. Returning again to the lawn, and inclining to the south, you come to an artificial shrubbery, not dotted about in single plants, but in large and bold clusters of the same species, so that the effect from a distance is as good as upon a nearer approach. Here, as elsewhere, not a sod of turf is broken ; but, here and there, a bed of gay shrubby plants rises out of the smoothly.shorn grass, and in the background, amid masses of laburnum, lilac, and guelder-rose, fruit trees of every kind hang their bright garlands in spring, and their mellow produce in autumn. From thence winds a path, the deliciæ of the garden, planted with such herbs as yield their perfume when trodden upon and crushed, - burnet, wild thyme, and water-mints, according to Bacon's advice, who bids us whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when you walk or tread."

• It were tedious to follow up the long shady path, not broad enough for more than two,—the “ lovers' walk, and the endless winding tracks in the natural wood, till you burst upon a wild common of

“Tooth'd briars, sharp furzes, prickly gorse, and thorns," glowing with heather bloom, and scented with the perfume of the furze, just such an English scene as Linnæus is said to have fallen down and worshipped the first time he beheld it.'

If we rightly understand the plan here detailed, it is intended to combine the chief excellencies of the artificial and natural styles; keeping the decorations immediately about the house formal, and so passing on by gradual transitions to the wildest scenes of nature.

The leading seatures then in such a garden would be an architectural terrace and flight of steps in connection with the houselower terraces of grass-slopes and flower-beds succeeding—these branching off on one side towards the kitchen department, through an old English garden, of which a bowling-green would form a part, and where florists' flowers might be sheltered by the trim hedges-on the other towards an undulating lawn bounded by



flowering shrubs and the larger herbaceous plants--with one corner for the American garden, beyond which would lie the natural copsewood and forest-ground of the place: of course the aspect and situation of the house, and the character of the neighbouring ground and country, would modify these or any general rules which might be laid down for the formation of a garden; but we think some advantage might, in every case, be taken from these hints.

In a place of any pretension, a good clear lawn where children of younger or older growth may romp about, without fear of damaging shrubs or plants, is indispensable.

Single shrubs and flowers, or groups of them, on the verge of this lawn, springing up directly from the turf, and dotted in front of shrubberies that bound it, are preferable to those growing with a distinctly marked border. The common peonies, and the Chinese variety—the tree-peony (P.moutan.), are excellent for this purpose; but there is nothing to surpass the old-fashioned hollyhock. This, as has been remarked, is the only landscape flower we possess—the only one, that is, whose forms and colours tell in the distance; and so picturesque is it, that perhaps no artist ever attempted to draw a garden without introducing it, whether it were really there or not. •By far the finest effect (says the author We have already quoted) that combined art and nature ever produced in gardening were those fine masses of many-coloured hollyhocks clustered round a weather-tinted vase; such as Sir Joshua delighted to place in the wings of his pictures. And what more magnificent than a long avenue of these floral giants, the double and the single—not too straightly tied-backed by a dark thick hedge of old-fashioned yew ?'* Such an avenue-without the dark thick hedge,' which would certainly have been an improvement--we remember to have seen, in the fullness of its autumn splendour, in the garden at Granton, near Edinburgh, the marine villa of a deep lawyer-and another may have been inspected by many of our readers at Bromley Hill. Here the hollyhock's broke the horizon with their obelisks of colour;' and the foreground was a mass of dahlias, American marigolds, mallows, asters, and mignionette. It was the most gorgeous mass of colouring we ever beheld; but was only one of the many beautiful effects produced on this spot by the taste of the late Lady Farnborough. For a modern garden, of limited size, this was the most complete we ever visited, the situation allowing greater variety than could well be conceived within so small a compass. A conservatory connected with the house led to a summer-room:

* We do not often indulge in a prophecy, but we will venture to stake our gardening credit that, within five years' time, the hollyhock will again be restored to favour, become a florist's flower, and carry off horticultural prizes,


this looked on a sinall Italian garden--the highest point of the grounds, and affording a dim view of the dome of St. Paul's in the distance; and thence you descended, by steep grassy banks and steps of rock and root-work, from garden to garden, each having some peculiar feature of its own, till you came to the most perfect little Ruysdael rivulet, and such crystal springs, in all their natural wildness, that it seemed, when you saw them, you had never known what pure cold native fountains were before. Any common taste would have bedizened these springs with cockleshells and crockery, and what not; but there they lay among the broad leaves of the water-lily and the burdock, glittering like huge liquid diamonds cast in a mould of nature's own making, and in their simplicity and pureness offering a striking contrast to the trim gardens and the dusky distant city you had just left above.*

Another source of great beauty in these gardens was the evident care bestowed on the growth and position of the flowers. Every plant seemed to be just in its right place, both for its flourishing and its effect. There was a very great abundance and variety of the tenderer kinds that required protection in winter ; but we believe they were, for the most part, kept in cold pits, very little forcing being used; and there were not more than six or eight gardeners and labourers at any time employed. We still have before our eyes the splendid masses of the common scarlet geranium, and a smaller bed of the variegated-leafed variety, edged with a border of the ivy-leafed kind; nor ought we to forget the effect of a large low ring of ivy on the lawn, which looked like a gigantic chaplet carelessly thrown there by some Titan hand.

A garden should always lie sloping to the south, and if possible to the south of the house. † In this case the chief entrance to the house should be, in an ordinarily sheltered situation, on the east or north; for, common as the fault is, nothing so entirely spoils a garden as to have it placed in front of the public approach. Views, it should be reinembered, are always clearest in the opposite direction to the sun. Thus the north is most uninterruptedly clear throughout the day; the west in the morning; the east in the afternoon. Speaking with a view only to gardening effect,

* There was no occasion in this place for the exclamation of the Roman satirist on a similar scene which had been marred by art

Quanto præstantius esset
Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas

Herba, nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophum.'--Jur. iii. 19. And which shows, by the way, that there were some Romans, at least, who could appreciate the beauties of natural scenery.

† To show how diflicult it is to lay down any general rule, uncontroverted, here is one from Macintosh's · Practical Gardener,' one of the best practical works on horticulture we possess. In all cases, unless in small villis or cottage-residences, the flower-garden should be entirely concealed from the windows of the house, and be placed, if circumstances will admit of it, in the shrubbery.'


trees, which are generally much too near the dwelling for health, and beauty, and everything else, should be kept at a distance from the house, except on the east side. On the south and west they keep off the sun, of which we can never have too much in England; and on the north they render the place damp and gloomy; whereas, on that side they should be kept so far fro:n the windows as to back and shelter a bright bank of shrubs and flowers, planted far enough from the shadow cast by the house so as to catch the sun upon them during the greater part of the year and day. The prospect towards the north would then be as cheerful as any other.

It is astonishing how people continue to plant spruce and Scotch firs, and larches, and other incongruous forest-trees, so close that they chafe the very house with their branches, when there are at hand such beautiful trees as the Lebanon and Deodara cedars; or, for smaller, or more formal, or spiral shrubs, the red cedar, the cypress, the arbor-vitæ, the holly, the yew, and - most graceful of all, either as a tree or shrub, or rather uniting the properties of both, and which only requires shelter to make it flourish-the hemlock spruce.

As a low shrubby plant on the lawn, nothing can exceed the glossy, dark, indented leaves and bright yellow spikes of the new evergreen berberries (Berberis* aquifolium and B. repens), with their many hybrid varieties. They are becoming daily more popular, not only from their beauty, but as affording perhaps the best underwood covert for game yet discovered. The experiments made in the woods of Sudbury and elsewhere have completely succeeded; the plant being evergreen, very hardy, of easy growth, standing the tree-drip, and affording in its berry an excellent food for pheasants. Our nurserymen are already anticipating the demand, and we have no doubt that a few years' time will see this the main undergrowth of our game-preserves. The notice we took a few years ago (in an Article on the Arboretum Britannicum)ť of the Deodara pine-now classed among the cedars--has-

* Now changed to Mahonia, † Q. R., vol. Ixii., p. 359. The Chili pine (Araucaria imbricata) is now treading upon the heels of the Deodara cedar as an ornamental garden-tree, but though announced 20 the largest tree in the world,' it will ever want the elegance of the latter. Even yet another monster is threatening us under the name of Pawlonia imperialis : it was introduced into France from Japan by Dr. Siebold, and promises to be one of the most imposing plauts in our gardens. We saw some young plants this spring in Mr. Rollison's nursery, which were obtained from the Royal Gardener at Versailles. The leaves of a specimen in the Jardin des Plantes are said to measure from 18 to 24 inches across. While speaking of trees, we would say one word on the acacia, Cobbett's famous locusttree (Robinia pseudoacacia), now more than necessarily depreciated. We are fully aware of its defects as a timber-tree from the brittleness and splitting of its branches, and slowness in making bulk; but once get a bole large enough to cut a post out of it , and ask your carpenter whether it will not last as long as the iron fixed into it. It is more to our present purpose to say, that it is by far the best tree to be used for ornamental rustic-work, as its bark is as tough as its timber, and never peels off.

unless unless the dealers flatter us--given a great impetus to the cultivation of this valuable tree. Its timber qualities as a Britishgrown tree have not of course been yet tested; but as an ornamental one

-in which character only we can refer to it here—it has more than surpassed the highest expectations entertained respecting it. The nurserymen cannot propagate it fast enough by grafts, and layers, and the abundance of seed which the East India Company has so liberally distributed.

The olitory, or herb-garden, is a part of our horticulture now comparatively neglected, and yet once the culture and culling of simples was as much a part of female education as the preserving and tying down of rasps and apricocks.' There was not a Lady Bountiful in the kingdom but made her dill-tea and diet-drink from herbs of her own planting; and there is a neatness and prettiness about our thyme, and sage, and mint, and marjoram, that might yet, we think, transfer them from the patronage of the blue serge

to that of the white muslin apron. Lavender, and rosemary, and rue, the feathery fennel, and the bright-blue borage, are all pretty bushes in their way, and might have their due place assigned them by the hand of beauty and taste. A strip for a little herbary, halfway between the flower and vegetable garden, would form a very appropriate transition stratum, and might be the means, by being more under the eye of the mistress, of recovering to our soups and salads some of the comparatively neglected herbs of tarragon, and French sorrel, and purslane, and chervil, and dill, and clary, and others whose place is now nowhere to be found but in the pages of the old herbalists. This little plot should be laid out, of course, in a simple geometric pattern; and, having tried the experiment, we can boldly pronounce on its success. We recommend the idea to the consideration of our lady-gardeners.

We can recall so much amusement in early years from the maze at Hampton Court, that we could heartily wish to see a few more such planted. Daines Barrington mentions a plan for one in Switzer (Iconographia, 1718) with twenty stops : that at Hampton has but four. Á fanciful summer-house perched at the top of a high mound, with narrow winding paths leading to it, was another favourite ornament of old British gardens. Traces of many such mounds still exist; but the crowning buildings are, alas! no more. We must own our predilection for them, if it were only that the gilded pinnacle seemed to prefigure to the young idea · Fame's proud temple shining from afar' (it is always so drawn in frontispieces); while the hard climbing was a palpable type of the ambition of after years.

The snug smooth bowling-green is another desideratum we would have restored; and gardeners ought to know that the clipt


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