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was to yield benefits of the first mag- they ought not to be? : We, sir, by nitude; it was to extinguish party our new system. spirit, and fill Ireland with harmony. The Catholics in Ireland now form We put forth these predictions with a party which has its separate Parlia our wonted confidence --we proclaim- ment—levies taxes-tramples on the ed that they could not be falsified laws-arrays the tenant against the we eulogized ourselves, as statesmen landlord-prohibits the Catholic from incapable of error--and we cast on dealing with the Protestant-monopoall who ventured to differ from us lizes the elective franchise-does every every odious name and imputation. thing in its power for the overthrow
What, sir, has this new system pro- of the Established Church--and calls duced ? I ask not in the name of this for the repeal of the Union. They party, or that~ I speak not for Orange- now form a party which is lawlessman, or member of O'Connell's Order which fills Ireland with rage, convulof Liberators—but I put the question sion and disaffection-and which tera in the name of the British empire. It rifies both the Irish government, and has produced a specimen of misgovern- the British one, into dastardly inac, ment wholly without example-a hi- tion and submission. This, sir, is the deous series of growing evils, having offspring of our attempts to annihilate the most destructive effects on the party. Predictions! we have drawn present, and ensuring a future of ca
upon ourselves the mockery of the lamity and horrors. Speak of destroy- world by our predictions. If we have ing party! Ireland in comparison ne- a single shred of character left, in the ver knew what party was, until it was name of that shred, let us never utter compelled to swallow our nostrum for another. Concession and conciliation!!! its destruction. Speak of creating to save ourselves from the most bitter peace and harmony !—Ireland was derision that ever visited the errors comparatively a stranger to discord and of man, let us expunge the words from convulsion, until it was scourged by our language for ever. our system for terminating them. If, Here are what are called the Catholic sir, Ireland had been studiously go- Association, and the Order of Liberaverned on the principle of reversing tors, levying taxes through the prieste every maxim of common sense, filling hood, which are expended in feeding it with flame and strife, overthrowing the flame of convulsion and disaffece the Church, and severing every bond tion, doing every possible injury to that binds it to England; it would Protestantism and the Church, and have been governed precisely as it has getting up war and separation between been. If Ireland had been studiously Britain and Ireland. The truth of this governed on the principle of strength is notorious. As an Englishman, I ask, ening Catholicism to the utmost, not in the name of all that has hitherto in it only, but in England; and of been called law, and right, and freeenabling the Catholic Church to do dom, why this is tolerated ? Here are the most deadly injuries to the Esta- this Catholic Association, and Order of blished Church and Protestantism in Liberators, avowedly doing every thing England ; it would have been govern, in their power to prevent the Cathoed precisely as it has been. Ireland lics from having any dealings with for several years has been governed as Protestants who differ from them in the most bitter enemies of England politics. As an Englishman, I ask, in and Ireland--as the most bitter ene. the name of all that has hitherto been mies of the British empire-would called law, and right, and freedom, have governed it.
why this is tolerated ? Here are this We have, sir, destroyed one party, Catholic Association, and Order of Libut it has unhappily been that which berators, collecting money for the pure bound Ireland to England we have pose of influencing elections in the terminated party strife, but we have most pernicious and corrupt manner; unhappily done this only to involve and they are threatening every Irish Ireland in hostility with all the best Member of this House who may vote interests of the empire. Who have against their dictates, with the loss of enabled the Catholics to become what his seat, by the most foul and uncona they are, in power and outrage-institutional means. As an Englishmán, crime and danger-in every thing that I ask, in the name of all that has hia
therto been called law, and right, and tolerated, in justice to the Catholics, freedom, why this is tolerated? Here to enable them to gain the political are the Catholic Bishops and Priests power they seek, I will tell him who openly using their tremendous reli, answers me, that in defending the use gious despotism for the attainment of of such means for the attainment of the most baleful political objects; they such an end, he is an enemy to his are openly, by the terrors of future kind, and a traitor to his country. perdition, rending asunder the bonds It is universally acknowledged that of society, involving their flocks in the toleration of these atrocities in the ruinous war with those whose bread Catholics, aids them greatly in their they eat, and constituting their Church struggles for the power they claim the sole Elector of Irish Members of that crushes opposition to them in Parliament. As an Englishman, I ask, Ireland-compels many Protestants to in the name of all that has hitherto support them through interest and been called law, and right, and free. terror-forces many landlords to vote dom, why this is tolerated ? Here are for them against conviction-makes the Catholic Association, the Order of many of the Members of this House Liberators, and the Priesthood, open- their abject slaves—forms a powerful ly violating the laws, stripping the weapon in the hands of their advopeople of their rights, subjecting the cates--and operates in their favour Protestants to the most grievous op- on the ignorance, timidity, and intere pression, tyrannizing over Ireland in est of many people in this country. the most outrageous manner, and, in As a man steadily opposed to their reality, committing almost every va- claims, I ask those Ministers who proriety of treason. As an Englishman, fess to think as I do, why they suffer I ask, in the name of all that has hi. the Catholics to render themselves so therto been called law, and right, and potent by such atrocities? The man freedom, why this is tolerated? who, with the power to prevent it in
At present, sir, Ireland has no go- his hands, tamely suffers the Catho. vernment, and Britain, in as far as lics to render themselves, by illegal concerns Ireland, has no government. and unconstitutional means, almost The offices may be filled, and the sa- irresistible-that man, sir, whatever laries may be paid ; there may be an he may call himself, is a promoter of Irish Lord - Lieutenant, and Lord what bears the name of Catholic EmanChancellor, and a British Prime Mi. cipation. The man who is consciennister, and Home-Secretary, in existe tiously opposed to such emancipation, ence; but it is clear, from the spec- will zealously labour to keep from the tacle which Ireland has long formed, Catholics the means of attaining it. that, in respect of duty, and in so far And what are we doing amidst these as Ireland is concerned, there is not at horrible fruits of our new system? present either an Irish government or One part of us is looking on in speecha British one. Had the case been dif- less timidity, while the other is indulferent, I would have put my questions ging in savage drunken triumph. If to both governments; but, as it is, I any honest man call on the Governwill put them to any man who will an- ment to do its duty, he is clamoured swer me. If I am in reply, that down by those norant, superficial, this hideous, this portentous, this de- crack-brained menials, who hold their structive, and this criminal state of seats at the breath of the Catholic Assothings is tolerated, because it is im- ciation and Priesthood. In this House possible to apply a remedy, or because the Association and Priesthood find it might be dangerous to apply one, I not only blushless eulogists, but vicwill treat the folly and cowardice of torious defenders; their robberies and him who answers me, with the scorn oppression, their outrages and crimes, they merit. Impossible to apply a re- are successfully lauded as things legal, medy !_such an opinion uttered in constitutional, just, and most meriEngland, and in the House of Come torious. All this has its natural effect mons, cannot surely need refutation. on the opinion of the country. Our Dangerous to apply a remedy !--the conduct is seen by the country in its blindness, sir, is wilful, which cannot true character. see that it is the only thing in which we If we have not formed a determina. can find safety. If I am told, in reply, tion never again to look at, or disthat this state of things ought to be charge our duty, I need not say more VOL. XXIV.
to induce us to inquire rigidly into Let not our leaders and this House the consequences which have flowed hope that mere opinions, no matter from our new system of governing from whom they may emanate, will Ireland.
again lead the country. Mr HuskisIn advocating this extended Inqui- son will utter his opinions on trade in ry, sir, I am not calling on this House vain---Mr Peel will utter his opinions to adopt the opinions of any writer, on currency in vain-Mr Brougham or the policy of any party. I am not will utter his opinions on education asking it to wander into speculation, and the relations between master and to institute experiments, or to aban- servant in vain--this House will utter don any principle or system. I am its opinions on all manner of subjects merely craving it to discharge a plain in vain; for the domination of opi. and obvious duty, which has not the nions, I devoutly thank Heaven for most remote connexion with party in- it! is no more. We may persevere terests. Its own interests call for com. we may vaunt of our omniscience and pliance, as a matter of imperious ne- infallibility--we may cover all who cessity. If we, sir, have been acting oppose us with slander and obloquywisely and justly, the Inquiry will we may worship, our “ liberal princisupply us with ample proofs to silence ples" and "enlightened views"-we our opponents, sanction us in proceed- may be puffed to our hearts' content ing farther, and regain public confi- by the newspapers but the issue will dence.
be, the loss of all that in our public We
may refuse to inquire, and per- character we ought to value; and the severe in the conduct we have of late production of all that in our public displayed ; but if we do, we shall not duty we ought to prevent. escape the penalties. Thespell, through I have said, sir, that this Inquiry which we were wont to lead the com- has nothing to do with party creeds; munity, is broken; and it will never and I will now say, that I am not ad. more be known to the present gene- vocating it for the sake of any party ration. So long, sir, as our labours of public men. My party bonds exwere confined to foreign policy, and tend not beyond principles; they the making of laws which were obvie have nothing to do with persons. Í ously necessary, our infallibility esca- oppose those who hold principles ped suspicion ; the bulk of the nation which I oppose ; and I support those was compelled to take our words on who hold principles which I support, trust, or it saw that we did, what it without looking at name and condic was our duty to do. But when we tion. The principles and policy which began to make speculative changes in I steadily withstood in Mr Canning agriculture, manufactures, trade, cur- and Mr Huskisson, I will as steadily rency, and the relations of society; withstand in any other Minister ; the we enabled the country to take exact iniquity of acting otherwise shall not measure of our qualifications. Then, stain my forehead. In respect of mere alas! it discovered that we were, not persons, I care no more for the Duke only imperfect, erring men, but that of Wellington than for the Marquis of we displayed more imperfection and Lansdown or Lord King—for Mr Peel error, than the generality of men. than for Mr Brougham or Mr HusThe humble member of the commu- kisson. Personal politics have been nity perceived, to his inexpressible as- too long the shame and scourge of my tonishment, that individuals who were country, for me to have any further leaders in this House and the country connexion with them. From the hu. that individuals who were even the miliation of combating for one knot rulers of the empire-were grossly ig- of public men against another; when, norant on matters perfectly familiar to after their quarrelling and resigning, himself. He heard them assert that their treachery, and vituperations of to be truth, which he knew from ocu- each other, they shake hands, and lar demonstration to be fiction; and protest that they have never differed he saw them enact laws on principles in principle, and have only had a tema and assumptions, which had been pro- porary squabble from dirty personal ved to him to be erroneous by the pique and interest ;-from such hudaily experience of his whole life. The miliation I will be careful in future to charm of names vanished, and the reign preserve myself. With the coalitions of trust ceased.
and alliances, which are the scandal
of the age, I will have nothing to do: and blind to demonstration, degrade to me they are as loathsome in one me by voting in favour of my motion, man or party as in another; my judge for I crave not their support. 1 apment tells me that no man, no matter peal only to those whose party is their what his rank, reputation, name, and country--who revere their laws and situation may be, can be a party to institutionswhose souls glow with them without losing his character in the sacred flame of Old English inte. the eyes of the honest and consistent. grity and honour-whose fame is unI fear I can only escape being conta, soiled by guilty coalition and alliance minated with them, by standing aloof —whose consistency is unimpeached from all parties of public men. who, disregarding opinion and theory,
Nevertheless, sir, I have a party. follow fact and experience--who are I belong to one which the proudest anxious to make, not this portion or man that ever trod the proud soil of Old that, but all their fellow-subjects England might be proud of belonging prosperous and happy-and to whom to. I hold the principles which are the honour, greatness, and felicity of held by the flower of my country, and their country are as dear as the dearest by my country ; therefore these con- of their personal possessions. To such stitute my party. In its name I now men I appeal, in confidence that they speak. Let not the heads or follow- will find in my appeal an irresistible ers of personal party-the innovators summons to the discharge of the high-, the turncoats -the men who hold est of their duties. one creed out of office and another in I therefore move, &c. &c. it--and those who are deaf to reason
HORÆ GERMANICÆ. No. XXV.
The Golden Fleece. By F. GRILLPARZER.
The Golden Fleece, entitled by four acts, contains 60 much of their its author a dramatic poem, is in three celebrated expedition for its recovery, distinct Parts, or Plays (what is learn- and satisfaction of this crime, as had edly denominated à Trilogy).- of its scene in Colchis,--and the Third, which the first is sort of prologue, in five acts, is, in name and subject, or induction, to the other two, name- the usual tragedy of “ Medea.” ly, “The Guest,” in one act only, con- The spirited opening scene of The taining the arrival of the Fleece in Guest shews the liveliness of concepColchis, with the murder, in viola- tion with which our author transports tion of the laws of hospitality, of the himself and his reader into the place, Greek, Phryxus, who brought it.- and time of his action. The stage reThe Second, " The Argonauts," in presents, Colchis. A wild place, with rocks and trees-in the background the sea
On the strand an altar of unhewn stones, on which is the colossal statue of a man, naked, bearded, with a club in his right hand, and over his shoulders a golden ram's fleece-On the left, at half the depth of the stage, the entrance
of a house, with steps, and rude pillars. Day-break. MEDEA, GORA, (her Nurse), PERITTA, ATTENDANT DAMSELS. As the cur
tain is drawn up, MEDEA is seen standing in the foreground, with her bow in her hand, in the attitude of having just discharged the arrow. On the steps of the altar lics a roe, pierced with an arrow..
The Damsels, (who had stood back, hastening to the altar).
Med. (In her former attitude). Hath it hit ?
Med. (giving her bow.) A sign for good !-So let us haste! Go one,
Guru. (Advancing to the altar). Darimba ! mightiest queen!
openly taking away the capital and have by law practically prohibited the profits of employers, and restricting agriculturists from raising their prothe labouring classes from earning a fits, and of course their wages; we sufficiency of common necessaries, on have done the same to the manufacá the sole pretext that foreign trade turing and trading interests; we have would be benefited by it. I cannot, made it the general rule by statute. sir, mention such tremendous errors We cannot charge it upon the old and follies, without being almost de- causes; we can no longer plead that prived of utterance by shame and sor- it has arisen from overtrading, wild
speculation, and bank-notes; blind are Let us then turn from the imports we as the inanimate stone, if we canand exports, to look at the state of the not see that it is impossible for it to population. Putting occasional fits of be better, unless our own laws lose loss and distress out of the question, their operation. Appearances indi: this state is, and has been, for the last cate the reverse of improvement; they eighteen months, worse than the pre- shew but too clearly that it is on the sent generation ever knew it to be. eve of resolving itself into a state of In agriculture, manufactures, trade, general and severe distress. and commerce, profits have been re- If this continue, what must it produced almost to nothing; and wages duce? The inevitable operation of have been brought down to a point continued bad profits is, to destroy the wholly inadequate for the comfortable capital of all but the rich. Agriculsubsistence of the labouring classes. tural capital in late years has sustainThe mass of the population is in worse ed enormous diminution; it is still circumstances than it has been in for diminishing; and if it continue to dimany years, excepting, as I have said, minish, our farmers will soon be in occasional fits of loss and distress. general an extremely poor body of Even in these fits, the loss and distress men. Manufacturing and trading capiwere seldom felt by the body of the talhas likewise sustained great diminu. community ; if agriculture suffered, tion, and it is still diminishing: anmanufactures perhaps escaped the suf- other fit of distress amidst merchants fering; if manufactures and commerce and manufacturers would have the were in distress, agriculture perhaps most fatal consequences. If this gewas reasonably prosperous ; if wages neral decline of capital, amidst all the were excessively low in agriculture, less wealthy, continue, it will at no they were perhaps good in manufac- distant period strip all of capital save tures; or if they were bad in the late the very wealthy. It is admitted that a ter, they were perhaps good in the lamentable change for the worse has former. Agriculture would have suf- already taken place in the feelings and fered very little in 1825 and 1826, conduct of the lower orders; that notwithstanding the manufacturing penury into which they have sunk, and commercial distress, had it not ħas, we know, had its natural and been for our measures. But at pre- certain fruits; if the cause continue sent the badness of profits and wages to operate, the consequences must be-the impoverishment and privations come more comprehensive and appal-the decline in circumstances, are ling. If these orders continue thus to felt in nearly an equal degree by all retrograde, they must soon be in a the interests of the empire-by nearly condition and display characteristics; the whole population. This House which no friend of his country can cannot be, and it is not, ignorant of reflect on without affliction and disthis. We know it to be unquestion- may able, that profits are in general very
This will suffice to shew that we bad—that wages are in general very can find no defence in the amount of low-that the labouring classes are in imports and exports; at any rate it general in great penury--that pauper- establishes the imperious necessity for ism has increased and that there has inquiry. Such inquiry as it is our sabeen a fearful increase in vice and cred duty to institute, will exhibit to crime.
us the exact operation of the imports We cannot, sir, call this a temporary' and exports; we can ascertain in what state of things the mere exception to
articles the increase has been ; we can the rule; we have clear proof that itcan- take each article separately, and trace not amend, in our own enactments; we its effects upon the population.