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From the boundary of the Cape tury, the seat of missions. The Jenorthwards, the west coast, a space of suits founded a mission in St Domingo 1500 miles, is barren, or inhabited by in 1704, and the island, now containutter savages.
ing a million of souls, is divided into On the coast of Upper Guinea, the four bishopricks, with an archbishop colony of Sierra Leone was establish- residing at Port-au-Prince. In Jaed in 1787, as a place of refuge for the maica, the chief British settlement, negroes taken on board the slave-ships, the Moravians appeared in 1754. and as a means of introducing civili- These were followed by the Wesleyzation into Africa. But with some ans in 1781, and the Baptists, who advantages, this settlement wanted founded numerous congregations, consome important features of success. It sisting of about a sixth part of the had no large river, without which the negro population, or 50,000. In all interior must be inaccessible ; it had the Protestant islands, the Gospel has but little means of supporting itself, been spread with great diligence. But from its position in a corner of the the original crime and calamity of the coast; and last, and most obnoxious of West Indies, slavery, still acts powerall, the climate, always hazardous, has fully against Christianity. To aboseemed to grow constantly more fatal lish slavery at once, or even to abolish to Europeans. Under these circum- it at all, until the negroes are fit for stances, another experiment is about freedom, would be to expose the whole to be tried at Fernando Po, a large white population to massacre, and island in the Bight of Benin, and throw the negroes themselves into a commanding the mouths of the great state of wretchedness, bloodshed, and rivers of West Africa. Commerce in incurable ignorance, that no rational the hands of England is among the man, let his homage for liberty and most vigorous instruments of civiliza, religion be what it may, can contem,
and if commerce can make its plate without abhorrence. But the way up the central rivers, religion will new expedient of establishing English follow.
bishops in Barbadoes and Jamaica, America presents an almost unlimite may lead to some advantageous change. ed region for the efforts of the mis- The planters may look with less sussionary. The space lying between the picion upon the labours of an authennorth of Canada, the Asiatic ocean, tic and responsible clergy, than upon and the United States and Mexico, a the notorious giddiness, and compararegion of more than two millions and tive ignorance, of the sectaries. The a half of square miles, had long been doctrines of the English Church, proeither altogether abandoned to the sa- verbial for gentleness and good sense, vage superstitions of the Indians, or to may lead the negroes more securely the blind perversions of the Gospel into Scriptural knowledge ; and if the brought by the Romish priesthood. distributors of office at home shall Within these few years, some attempts conscientiously send out no prelates have been made by the Protestant inferior to their duties, men not meremissions from Upper Canada, but with ly of intelligence and scholarship, but only partial effect.
of holy zeal, and filled with the conThe United States have made con- sciousness of the good that may be siderable efforts to reclaim their bore done by Christian activity, and the dering savages. The Society, esta- evil that must follow indolence, we blished in 1787, for the “ Propaga- may before long see a great and salution of the Gospel among the Hea- tary reform in the West Indian hathen," has laboured diligently. The bits, the character of the planters circulation of the Scriptures is vigor- purified, and the negroes made fit for ously pursued. In 1827 there were a safe and productive freedom. in the States no less than 578 Bible The new states of South America Societies. The Aborigines have been are still in the embarrassments of inreduced to about 470,000 souls, of surrection, revolution, and mutual which a portion are quietly adopting war. But to augur from what they civilization, and settling in villages. have done under those formidable There are forty-one missionary esta- pressures, they have a noble future blishments for Indian education. before their industry. They have pro
The West Indies have been, since hibited the slave trade, and decreed the commencement of the 18th cen. that every human being born in their
territories shall be born free. Buenos power of Christianity is to be found. Ayres has established a university, The Sandwich islands, once proverbial which has 400 students. Thirty free for crime, are rapidly receiving the schools are supported by the govern- habits of religion. Occasional excesses ment on the British system.
still disfigure the picture, and the preIn Columbia, Bolivar has establish, sent generation must be worn out beed the same system, with a public fore the recollections of its old license stipend, and sends annually several can be without partizans. But the young men to England to acquire its change is proceeding, and must be fin details. In Mexico, a convent has nally productive of the highest advanbeen turned into an Academy for 1360 tages to the national character, the pupils, with a model department for prosperity of the people, and to the training masters for provincial schools. general influence of the missionaries In Peru, a central school has been es- over the tribes of the South Sea. tablished in Lima. The British Bible In giving this sketch, we have to Society, and the American, have many acknowledge ourselves much indebted agents in those new republics, and the. to a work which has but just appeared, Bible is received willingly. The Ro- entitled, “The Present State of Chrisman Catholic faith is still paramount, tianity, and of the Missionary Estaand must for a while form a powerful blishments for its Propagation through antagonist; but prudence, perseve- all parts of the world," -- a single vorance, and the great and glorious cause lume, very intelligently drawn up, and which stimulates the Protestant mis giving a number of details and opia sionary, will finally overcome. nions important to the subject, but
New Holland, the fifth continent, on which we, of course, have no opwith its islands covering an immense portunity to enter. But the value of space of the great Southern Ocean, such publications must be not merely and growing up before the eye in in the information which they give, işlands innumerable, had been, since though the present work seems to the first English settlement in 1788, have been collected with great care by the object of religious labour. But, its original author, a German, and by in 1825, an “Auxiliary Church Mise its English reviser, and in part author, sionary Society” was formed in New from the reports of our various socieSouth Wales, with a grant of 10,000, ties—but in their impulse to similar acres. A grant to the same extent publications, to the activity of miswas made to the “London Missionary sionary establishments, and the geneSociety," and of twice the quantity ral desire of Christian men for the to the “ Wesleyan Mission,” in con- communication of Christian knowsequence of its wider establishment in ledge through the darkened regions the colony. But the natives, perhaps of the globe-the noblest effort that among the most brutish of mankind, can be achieved by the wisdom, the have been hitherto but little influené wealth, and the enterprize of man. ced. Nothing can be more contrary
One immense region alone remains, to the received ideas, that human na- the finest of the earth, and the most ture derives its evil habits from natu« impervious to the step of Christianity ral privations, inclemency of climate, Turkey in Asia, an extent of more or long oppression, than the tempera- than 360,000 square miles, with a poment of the dwellers in the South pulation of twelve millions. The few Seas. The fine climate, abundant pro- Christians scattered through this magvisions, and lazy equality of condition, nificent territory are scarcely more are all made for the overthrow of the than nominal; and every attempt to theory. The people are almost uni- restore them to the knowledge of their versally ferocious, treacherous, licen- faith has been hitherto almost hopetious, and thieving. Cannibalism is less. To convert their masters is benot uncommon, and the massacre of yond even the highest daring of the prisoners is customary: In New Hola missionary. The Turk answers all arland, man is a beast; in the two New gument by the dagger. But the change Zealand islands, he is a savage'; and, which no reasoning of man can effect in the generality of the others, he is a may be destined to severer means, and monster of perfidy and blood. Yet it the sword may liberate the Christian is in this Archipelago that the most slave from a hideous tyranny, which striking evidence of the civilizing not even the light of the Gospel has
been suffered to enlighten. Whether the ginal seat of religion, Palestine, sball present Russian war be the commence- be made the throne of a dominion sument of that great revolution, by which preme and holy, are truths written the chains of Greece and Asia Minor with a fulness and splendour which are to be broken, must be beyond all force convietion, and at once sustain but conjecture. Yet that those chains us in the solemn labours of bringing shall finally be dissolved, that Maho- our fellow-creatures to the knowledge metanism shall be extinguished, that of God; and cheer us with the certhe chosen land of the early church, tainty of a consummation illustrious Ionia, shall be free, and that the ori- beyond the thought of man.
MARTIN'S FALL OF NINEVEH.
This fine picture, which has occu- probably reckoning from the origin of pied the artist at intervals for some the empire, or 520 from the perfect years, has excited great and merited building of the city. The outline of admiration. It is on a large scale, its fall is this: The Assyrian mo perhaps thrice the size of his Belshaz- narchs had gradually degenerated from zar, and exhibits an extraordinary the rude virtues and barbarian valour union of diligent labour, with original of the founders of the dynasty. Sarand vivid fancy. Lord Byron's tra- danapalus exceeded them all in effegedy has brought Sardanapalus into minate luxury ; shut himself up from
T; favour, and the traditional voluptuary the people, and was known only by has been transformed into the hero. his excesses. An insult to Arbaces,
Yet this denial of the verdict of his the general of the Median auxiliaries, tory is too adventurous to be safe. excited him to vengeance; he leagued We have noright, atour remote period, with Belesis, a Babylonian priest; inand in the absence of all proof, to terpreter of the stars, and general, a doubt the universal opinion of anti- combination of character formidable quity, formed as it was upon a better in any period of antiquity. The basis-knowledge of the facts that Medes and Persiaps, Babylonians and
have reached us, and upon a know- Arabs, rose in arms. Three desperate ledge of facts which have either alto battles were fought, in which the congether passed away, or have left us spirators were repulsed. But the arbut their shadows. Thus, attempts rival of the Bactrian army turned the have been hazarded to shew that Nero scale; and Sardanapalus, after having
; was not a monster, or that Heliogaba- fought with a spirit worthy of the lus was not a miserable slave of appe- last descendant of Semiramis, was tite and vice. But in a year or two driven within the walls of his colossal after the triumph of the sophist, his city. He sustained a two years' siege, triumph is forgotten. Opinion rights which there was no Eastern Homer to itself, the subtlety of the argument is make immortal. The oracle declared extinguished by truth, and we revert that the city would never be taken to the early character established by until the river became its enemy. In time; and Sardanapalus is a slave of the third year, the Tigris suddenly intemperance, Nero a monster of cruel- swelled, and twenty furlongs of the ty, and Richard a hunchback, a usur- great rampartwere thrown down. The per, and a murderer of children, note fate of the captives was proverbially terwithstanding all the Walpoles, past, rible; and Sardanapalus resolved to present, and to come.
perish in his own way. The incomThe painter has chosen his subject plete narrative of his death has some from the darkness of history. Of features of the magnificence, eccenNineveh, the great city of the first tricity, and solemn sensualism, that empire, we know little more than that mark the Oriental character to this it existed, was denounced by succese day. “ He built,” says Ctesias, sive prophets for its blood-thirstiness, pyramid of all precious furniture; love of plunder, drunkenness, and and within it a chamber a hundred oppression ; and that it was destroyed feet long. He filled it with beds for by an insurrection of the subject king- himself and his multitude of wives ; doms, after a duration of 1400 years, and, in the midst of feasting and in
dulgence, in the sound of music, and at the foot of which rises the funeral in the sight of an immense treasure pile, a vaststructure of golden couches, of gold and silver talents, of gems and tables, images, embroidered apparel, kingly ornaments, he set the chamber and everything at once costly and comin Aames. His empire perished with bustible. In the midst of the pile is him.”
the entrance to the chamber of death, The moment of the picture is the overhung with huge festoons of firemarch of Sardanapalus to the pile. coloured silk, a mighty veil to fall The wrath of Heaven is combining and shut the revellers from the world. with the fury of the inundation, and The groups on the terrace are singu. the assault of the enemy. Lightning larly animated, various, and splendid. is darting on the lofty towers, and Martin's former pictures were careplaces of idol worship in the extreme less of the human figure. But he has distance. In front of these, circling now felt its value; and making allowthe wall, and forcing their way through ance for the size and crisis, the one the breaches, are the Median and Bae of which renders some confusion albylonish troops routing the Assyrians. most inevitable, and the other at least Chariots and cavalry, elephants and prohibits no violence of attitude, the myriads of spearmen, are rolled upon figures are singularly adapted to the each other. In the centre of the scene scene. Jewels, superb robes, and mysrises the gigantic wall, a hundred feet tic emblems, are flung round the high, and on which threechariots could groups, with the habitual lavishness run abreast. It is seen broken down by of a painter whose hand the river, which spreads through the “ Showers on his kings barbaric pearl and picture, covered with war galleys. gold.” Beneath the
The picture has faults of colour, and foreground, is the grand group, of perhaps of conception ; but the whole Sardanapalus, with his women and effect is powerful and brilliant in a slaves. They are standing on a ter, degree unrivalled, and capable of berace which overlooks the battle, and ing rivalled by Martin alone. heads a long descent of marble steps,
HARK! 'Tis the pig, that, for her supper squeaking,
Oh, Inspiration, tell me, why
Does piggy squeak and baby cry,
Gentle Muses, tell me why?
Yon star reflected in the new-fallen dew,
Are, like that image, glittering and untrue?