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power should not be employed to extend slavery, and that the Territories shouldnot be opened for its extension. Mr. Lincoln was elected as President of the United States, and took an oath to defend and maintain the Union. The action of the Confederate conspiracy forced emancipation into the conflict, and rendered the war an anti-slavery struggle. The President constitutionally could only administer the government in concert with Congress and the Senate, and by the legitimate action of subordinate authorities ; but all the principal supporters he could look to must themselves be chosen by the popular suffrage. There were members of legislature who, in both Houses, could impede or prostrate the action or proposals of the administration, which must first obtain their approval. The peculiar circumstances attending the election of Mr. Lincoln constituted further matters of deliberate consideration. Four candidates had been started for the Presidency, Mr. Douglas, Mr. Breckenridge, Mr. Bell, and Mr. Lincoln ; each of them had numerous adherents. Messrs. Bell and Douglas stood as Union candidates, and for them 1,956,607 of the electors voted, a clear majority over Mr. Lincoln of nearly 100,000. The incoming President had to bear in mind, in all his sayings and doings, the voice of this majority in every annual election throughout the states. The purely Southern element in his antagonism was represented by 847,953 who voted for Breckenridge. Another phase of the national mind was presented in the Electoral College, to whom the decision reverted by the law of the Union, since neither of the candidates had a nett majority of the total popular vote, 4,662,170. Some of the College voted for Mr. Lincoln for one reason, and some for other reasons, all which deserved his respectful consideration. He had learned that the wisdom of the prudent is to understand his way, and he that handleth a matter wisely shall find good, and while a prudent man foreseeth the evil, yet the poor wise man may

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by his wisdom deliver the city; it became the President of the United States, in 1861, not only to be faithful in judging the poor, that he might establish his authority, but also watchful in his communications to guard himself against any false oath or rash procedure.

Mr. Wendell Phillips comprehended the philosophy of the position, when, at the beginning of 1863, he declared, “Never until we welcome the negro, the foreigner, all races as equals and metted together in a common nationality, hurl them all at despotism, will the North deserve triumph, or earn it at the hands of a just God. But the North will triumph. I hear it. Do you remember in that disastrous siege in India, when the Scotch girl raised her head from the pallet of the hospital, and said to the sickening hearts of the English, “I hear the bagpipes; the Campbells are coming,' and they said, 'Jessie, it is delirium.' No, I know it; I heard it far off.' And in an hour the pibroch burst upon their glad hearts, and the banner of England floated in triumph over their heads. So I hear in the dim distance the first notes of the jubilee rising from the hearts of the millions. Soon, very soon, you shall hear it at the gates of the citadel, and the stars and stripes shall guarantee liberty for ever, from the lakes to the gulf.”

CHAPTER IV.

A VISIT TO NEW YORK, WASHINGTON, THE WHITE HOUSE,

AND PHILADELPHIA.

The address by the Manchester Anti-Slavery Conference was entrusted, by the sub-Committee, to the Rev. J. H. Rylance, of St. Paul's, Westminster Road, Lambeth, and to myself. As Mr. Rylance was under arrangements to proceed to America on private affairs, he accepted the Mission, agreeing to perform its duties as far as he could, consistently with other engagements. He had arrived in America a week before me; domestic and clerical duties prevented him from rendering the services he was well qualified to discharge, except by a brief attendance at the New York committee, and two meetings at Philadelphia. His correspondence with England was more extended, and deemed valuable. It devolved on each member of the deputation to arrange for our own special duties, and to proceed on our journey according to our several routes. I will report my own proceedings without circumlocution or farther reference to my colleague ; except to observe that I believe, Mr. Rylance is a true and earnest friend and sympathizer with the citizens of America, among whom he has become a resident clergyman. He is a genuine lover of freedom and a true friend of the slave.

I sailed from England in the steam-ship“ City of Baltimore," and returned in the “ City of Washington.” I left Liverpool on the 17th of June, and sailed from New York

on the 3rd of October. Variety of character and national relations marked my fellow-passengers on both going out

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and coming home. Roman Catholic priests, American clergymen, Presbyterian and Episcopalian, and Baptist missionaries mingled in the company; Irishmen who had lived in America, and now had more sympathy with the South than the North; Englishmen who had become American in their associations, and sympathized strongly with the North; American sea-captains, who were peace democrats, and hated the slave; a Virginian slaveholder, who acknowledged owning thirty slaves; a Secessionist and a Southern emissary; men who had become rich, and others who had become poor; American ladies of intelligent and patriotic zeal for their country and religion, and some who hated the forms of religion except in a storm ; Jews, Frenchmen, and men born in India; educated and ignorant persons; card players and a professional singer; some that were very pleasant, and others who were destitute of all conversational attraction, formed the motley company. I preached in the cabin, on the poop, and on the forecastle. The cabin and the steerage passengers, besides the crew, supplied the congregation which then assembled. On the voyage out there were 750 who ranked as the latter; but many of them were of the Romish church, and among them the priest was welcome. We went out in thirteen days, and came home in about twelve. There was a sneering tone in the would-be critics toward the American army. The “Times” was a principal authority, and the wonderfully eloquent letters of some of “our correspondents" were greatly admired. The “ Alabama” and “Florida” were often discussed as we went, and on our way back the Rams were the principal objects of apprehension. The sympathies of the majority on our return voyage were with the North. It is usual that those who have been in America are more cordial as her friends than those who have heard of her in other lands.

The scene witnessed at Queenstown, where we took on

board a large increase to our steerage company, was characteristic of the people and the land. The mouring and lamentation of aged relatives seemed intense and overwhelming; wringing their hands, clasping in their bosom, wailing with weeping and distracting cries when parting from young men who were reeling under the influence of drink; nothing more vehement could have been displayed if the travellers were going to execution. Aged women rushed to the verge of the pier, and even on board of the tender, till the observer feared they would precipitate themselves into the sea, as if they could not sever themselves; while other members of the same family were indulging in free and easy conference, or would turn aside for a moment to soothe the agitation of their aged kindred. It was discovered after we had sailed from Queenstown that five men had stowed themselves on board, without paying, and affirming they had no money to pay their passage. They were marked on the back with numbers, to distinguish them, and then made to occupy themselves in menial services on the deck. An unsuccessful attempt was made to move the cabin passengers to subscribe to aid one of these schemers by the begging box being carried round. I suppose the authorities managed to secure payment in America.

Besides the vessels we passed at sea, two occasions occurred to arouse general attention; the first was an iceberg, and the other was the Associated Press boat at Cape Race. The iceberg was a mass of snow and ice, which probably rose 200 feet out of the sea, and, as we were assured, was, doubtless, twice the depth under the surface. A sort of haven or harbour on one side appeared as if it had been excavated to shelter the seals or sea monsters. The thermometer was sensibly lower in the vicinity ; whether from the influence of such a mass of ice, or that the region was colder. The same kind of object was visible on

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