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are furnished to the children free of charge. No expense is to be incurred by children of the Canal Zone attending the schools, except a nominal charge for the mutilation or loss of books or other property resulting from the pupil's carelessness or negligence.

It is the aim of the Division of Schools to provide for the children of American parents, instruction similar to that which they would receive in the public schools of the United States, in order that they may not be handicapped by reason of their temporary residence on the Isthmus, and to provide for native children resident within the Zone and children of the Commission's West Indian laborers such schooling as they might obtain in the Republic of Panama, or in their native islands. Mr. David C. O'Connor is Superintendent of Canal Zone Schools.

THE ISTHMIAN WATER SUPPLY.

When the United States took over the canal the crying need in the cities of Panama and Colon was an adequate water supply. The inhabitants were dependent on the rains during the invierno, or wet season, and on the street water peddlers during the verano, or dry scason. Nearly all the houses were provided with tanks, and during the rainy season it was an easy matter to keep them filled, but a inonth or so after the appearance of dry weather these were of no further use, and the people had to resort to the aguadores. The luxury of a daily bath could only be compassed by the well-to-lo, while the writer once noticed the same amount of water performing the following functions: First, used to wash the childrens' faces; second, used to wash out some articles of wear; third, used to

El M BRUUN,

General Importer and Commission Merchant.

No. 18 Front Street, COLON, Republic of Panama. Telegraphic Address:

A. B, C. CODE “BRUUN”,

5th EDITION.

on the

scrub the stone floor of the habitation; fourth and lastly, used to wash off the side walk in front.

When the Commission first grappled the subject, it was proposed to construct a dam and reservoir Juan Diaz, a clear mountain stream about fifteen miles from Panama, but off the line of railroad. The Panama Government was largely in favor of this plan. On account of its accessibility, the plan of building a reservoir at Rio Grande Superior to supply the city of Panama, and intermediate points was ultimately adopted. A division was organized for this work and a corps of men sent down in July, 1904, in charge of Carleton E. Davis. The department was then known as the Division of Water Works and Sewers, afterwards Water Works, Sewers and Roads, and at the present time Division of Municipal Engineering.

Water was promised the people of Panama on the Fourth of July, 1905, and the promise was fulfilled. The occasion was appropriately celebrated, the local fire department turning out and making a test of the different hydrants. The work of paving and sewering the cities of Panama and Colon was carried out by this department, operations having practically been brought to a close on November 1, 1907.

The Rio Grande reservoir which supplies Panama and points between lies directly on the railroad ten miles from the city. Its original capacity was 396,000,000 gallons, but during the prolonged dry season of 1907, the consumption was so great as to require an increased storage supply. The reservoir has recently been enlarged to hold 521,000,000 gallons. The water is conveyed through a 16-inch main to another reservoir at Ancon, where it is filtered and distributed through the city mains. The water at times has a disagreeable odor and taste, but several analyses have been made by experts who state that the quality of the water compares favorably with that furnished Washington, Baltimore, Kansas City, and other places. The objectionable odor and taste is said to be due to the amount of harmless motile crustacea found in the waters of all tropical countries. There is a good deal of fine silt held in suspension, and it is advisable to boil the water before using for Irinking purposes. The average daily consumption of water in Panama during November, 1907, was 775,367 gallons, as compared with 788,039 gallons in November, 1906. This shows a small falling off notwithstanding the fact that in November, 1906, there were only 625 connections compared with 1813 connections in November, 1907. The economy in consumption is wholly due to the installation of meters.

The district from Empire to Bas Obispo inclusive is supplied by the Camacho reservoir, with a capacity of 256,000,000 gallons. Gorgona, Matachin, Juan Grande and Mamei are supplied from a reservoir of 85,000,000 gallon capacity. The cities of Colon and Cristobal are furnished from the Brazos Brook reservoir, the capacity of which has recently been increased to 519,165,000 gallons. The normal average daily consumption in Colon is between 400,000 and 500,000 gallons.

On November 1, 1907, there had been laid in the city of Panama 11.30 miles of water pipe of various sizes, 5.12 miles in the city of Colon and 42.80 miles in the Canal Zone, making a total of 59.22 miles. During the same period there had been laid in the city of Panama 17.40 miles of sewer pipe, in Colon 5.80 miles, and in the Canal Zone 29.15 miles, a total of 52.35. In Panama 1,843 house connections had been made and in Colon 819.

[graphic]

Fire Department celebrating the Inauguration

of the American water system in Panama, July 4 the 1901. Isthenian American a PRR New Agency Addrertising Bureau, A. Bienkowski.

FOR EXCURSIONS TO
PEARL ISLANDS, PANAMA BAY, and COAST POINTS,

APPLY, OR WRITE TO

FINEL BROS.,

No. III North Avenue, PANAMA Only Firm on the Isthmus Catering to the Excursion Business. Magnificently Equipped new Twin-Screw

Steamers to be put in the service this year.

ama

There had been 134 fire hydrants placed in Panama and 54 in Colon.

During the same period there had been laid in Pan

5.12 miles of brick pavements comprising 63,764 square yards, in streets ranging in width from 13 to 35 feet; 3.03 miles of concrete and macadam pavements, comprising 67,625 square yards, in streets ranging in width from 8 to 30 feet; and 10.4 miles of curbing had been placed. In Colon 2,721 lineal feet of brick pavement, comprising 6,410 square yards, had been laid; 3.24 miles of macadam pavements, comprising 39,603 square yards, in streets ranging in width from 14 to 44 feet, and 7.3 miles of curb and gutters had been installed.

The fire protection furnished to the cities of Panama and Colon is equal to that supplied to cities of similar size anywhere in the world

Several roads have been constructed by this Division throughout the Zone, the principal ones being as follows: Road from Panama to Las Sabanas, which is about four miles in length; from Panama to La Boca, about three miles; a' complete system of roads around the Hotel Tivoli and Ancon section; all necessary highways at Culebra, Empire, Las Cascadas, Bas Obispo, Gorgona, Pedro Miguel, and a road from Mount Hope to Cristobal.

This division is under Commissioner Rousseau, and under the direct supervision of Division Engineer J. G. Holcombe.

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