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of pollen-masses which present a striking resemblance to a dove. The breast, extended wings, the head and beak, and even two purple dots for the eyes are all distinctly shown and almost as true to nature as the art of man can depict them. Five leaves spring from each bulb of the plant. These leaves are from 20 to 30 inches in length, by five or six inches in breadth-lanceolate in form. The stem of the flower grows from three to four feet in height, bearing upon its summit a spike of globose, fleshy, yellowish white flowers, which yield a delicate perfume. Sometimes there is a peculiar sensibility connected with the flowers of this species of plant, which makes it a most effective insect trap, so hinged that it quickly closes and holds fast any insect which may alight upon it.
The Semana Santa derives its name from the fact that it usually blossoms during Holy week. Roses are grown, but they do not acquire the size or beauty of the roses in the temperate zone.
Gold is found in various parts of the IsthMinerals.
mus, principally in the Darien and San Blas regions, and the provinces of Veraguas and Chiriqui. Manganese mines exist at Nombre de Dios, forty miles east of Colon. Coal has been discovered near Bocas del Toro, but not in paying quantities. Copper deposits occur David and San Felix; iron in the vicinity of the Cerro San Cristobal. Traces of petroleum have been found in Chiriqui and Los Santos provinces.
Bananas forms the leading article of export Products.
of Panama, and are found in all parts of the country.
greatest degree productiveness however is reached in the Changuinola and Sixola districts of the province of Bocas del Toro where the United Fruit Company control large plantations. The city of Bocas is founded upon the banana industry, and is said to be the second largest banana port in the world. Between three and four million bunches are annually shipped from this point. Bananas
are also plentiful along the Chagres, and are brought down to Bohio and Gatun in cayucos, or native canoes, and from these points shipped to Colon by rail. Coffee reaches its highest stage of perfection in the province of Chiriqui, where in the vicinity of Boquete, many foreigners are engaged in its cultivation with splendid success. The Panama bean is of a very good grade. Chiriqui prov. ince is the best agricultural and grazing section in the Republic. It is blessed with a diversified climate, being cool enough in some parts to raise wheat and oats. Nearly all the cattle for local consumption come from there, while tobacco and garden products are produced extensively. The best cacao (the cocoa of commerce), comes from Coclé province. Sugar cane, used principally in making molasses and native rum, is raised in Chiriqui, Coclé, Los Santos and Veragnas Provinces. Other products consist of corn, plantains, rice, rubber, indigo, cocoanuts, palm and ivory nuts, sarsaparilla, ipecacuanha, skins of wild and domestic beasts, etc. Rubber is being produced more and more, Bocas del Toro, Veraguas, and the Darien being the favored sections. Mr. Jil Sanchez, heretofore mentioned, has issucd a comprehensive treatise on the rubber industry of the Isthmus, in English and Spanish, which is recommended to all interested in iubber production.
The National Assembly on May 29, 1907, passed PUBLIC LAND LAWS.
a set of laws governing the adjudication of the
wild, or waste lands of the Republic. Following is a synopsis of these laws, which will be found vieluable to those contemplating making investments in Isthmian public lands:
National waste lands are all those that form the terriArt. 1. tory of the Republic, with the exception of such as are
denominated free lands, and such as now belong to natural, or juridic persons. Art. 2. Full ownership of these waste lands is vested in the
The adjudication of waste lan is has for its object their ART. 3. cultivation, and the establishment of industries, or con
cerns of public benefit, viz., (1) For the establishment, development and common use of cities, towns and villages,
but such adjudications cannot be transferred, diverted to another object, excepting plots of land for city purposes, which may be ceded gratuitously, leased or sold by the respective municipalities on condition of building on them according to the
and within the time stipulated, by the aforesaid Corporations. (2) For homesteads, that is to say, country residences, surrounded by lands for agricultural and grazing purposes. (3) For the assistance of establishme=ts of public benefit, but such adjudication shall be subject to legislative sanction. (4) For the establishment and development of colonies authorized by law. (5) For the assistance and subsidy that may be granted by law for construction of ways of communication but such adjudications shall only be made in alternate lots along the respective ways. (6) Only the law shall decree adjudications of any other class (7) All natural,or juridic persons domiciled in the country shall have the right to have portions of waste land allotted to them, ex. cept that foreigners who are natives of countries where Panamanians are not permitted to own city or country property shall not enjoy this right.
A tax of 25 cents gold per hectare is imposed on the ARTS. 7 and 8.
issuance of titles, whether provisional or definitive.
The tax on titles established by this law shall be used ARTS. 9 to 10. to defray the expenses of management, survey and ad
judication of national lands. For the adjudication of concerns for the public benefit, development of colonies, and ways of communication, the tax on titles shall range from 25 to 50 cents gold per hectare.
The tax shall obtain as soon as the papers are filed with ART 11. the Commissioner of national lands, who will pass a cor
responding voucher to the Treasurer. ART. 12.
The application must be clearly written in Spanish,
stating the name of the district where the land is situated, the approximate area of said land, the boundaries thereof, the object for which it is to be used, and all details tending to convey & clear knowledge of the transaction.
The Commissioner of national lands is empowered to ART. 11. alter boundaries specified in the applications when same
are found to be detrimental to the adjoining waste lands, or likely to cause general inconvenience.
After an application has been made according to form ART. 15. herein prescribed, it shall be publicly made known by
edict, which shall be posted for a period of 30 days in a public place on the outside of the office of the Commissioner, aud in The office of the Alcalde of the district in which such land is located. It shall also be published in the Gaceta Oficial at the applicant's expense. The publication of the edict has for its object the affording of an opportunity for those who may consider that they have suffered damage by the application, to put in their claim in due course.
Agents of La Navegación Nacional.
Claims against applications for waste lands must be ART. 16. presented within 30 days subsequent to the date of the
third publication of the edict in the Gaceta Oficial, to the Commissioner of national lands for that district.
After the lapse of 30 days, without any claim having been ART. 17. presented, and if presented, decided in favor of the ap
plicant, the Commissioner shall deliver the application to an official surveyor, who in the next 15 days shall draw up the plan of the land, measure it, and submit his report.
All expenses incurred in the opening of the necessary ART. 20. cross-paths for the measurement of the land, and for
drawing up the plans thereof, shall be borne by the party concerned. The cross-paths shall have a minimum width of two meters (about 7 feet).
The plan, measurement and report having been accepted ART. 21. and approved by the respective commissioners, and
satisfactory proof exhibited of tax referred to in this law as having been paid, the Commissioner shall proceed to issue a provisional title.
The term for the definite adjudication having elapsed ART. 31. without application having been presented, the Commisresult that the party concerned has not fulfilled the obligations provided by this law, the land shall be declared abandoned in favor of the nation, and provisional title cancelled in consequence. Public notice shall be given of such action as provided in Arts. 15 and 16.
sioner shall proceed to make personally, or through a deputy, an ocular inspection of the land, and if from inspection it should nesses, and the party concerned, or his representative, shall repair to the adjudicated land, and forthwith effect delivery, making a record of the proceedings, which shall be signed by all those taking part in them.
All titles to definite ownership of land shall be registered ART. 32. at the expense of the party concerned at the proper Re
gister's office within 30 days after they have been issued, to insure validity.
Any resident, and in general any person not debarred by ART. 43. the laws, or who is not the owner of lands, has the right
to the provisional adjudication for his country residence of as much as 20 hectares of waste lands for such purpose, wherever he may select, provided they are not designed for any other use.
The maximum of waste lands to be adjudicated to a ART, 52 single person shall be 20,000 hectares. (Note: A
hectare equals 2.4711 acres, making the maximum allotment in acres 49,422).
Immediately after the officer selected to give possession ART. 66. of the land receives the communication from the provin
cial commissioner, he shall notify the party concerned, and shall post a placard during 48 hours in the office of the Alcalde of the District, announcing the day and hour in which the proceedings of taking possession will occur.
On the day and date appointed, the officer entrusted with ART. 67. giving possession, accompanied by two qualified wit
The proceedings of taking possession shall be at the ART. 69. expeuse of the party concerned, and it shall be his
duty to furnish board, and the necessary means of conveyance for the officer delegated to give possession, the municipal attorney, and the witnesses. In addition, he shall pay to the witnesses 12-2 cents gold for each hour, or fraction of an hour, of work performed by them in discharge of their mission.
Permits for the exploitation of forests on waste lands ART. 70. may be granted by the Commissioner of national lands
for a term of five years, and up to 1,000 hectares of land to each person, subject to the prepayment of a yearly tax of 25 cents gold per hectare.
Permits for transitory cultivation of waste lands may ART. 71. be granted for a term not excee ding five years, and
the tax on these permits shall be prepaid at the rate of 10 cents gold per hectare, and it shall be increased gradually at the rate of 5 cents gold per hectare per annum, until the rate of 50 cents gold per hectare per annum is reached, at which latter figure it will