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recognized by the statute as having established previous to the incorporation of the American Red Cross in 1905 the right to label their merchandise with the red cross as a trade-mark, but an explanation of this fact to the misusers of the emblem is usually sufficient to make plain the difference between those who have and those who have not a right to use our symbol. The officers of the Government, whose duty it is to register trade-marks, now invariably refuse to recognize by registration any mark that contemplates a display of the red cross or that resembles it.

Quite recently a fine of $20 and imprisonment in the workhouse for 30 days was imposed by a municipal judge on two persons who had been masquerading as Red Cross nurses and fraudulently collecting money as such.

Criminal proceedings have been instituted by the United States, on the advice of the counselor of the Red Cross, in another case, where after a warning pointing out the infraction of the law by an organization styled "The National Hospital Association,” the disuse of a very close imitation of the red cross was refused.




H. R. 14330.


JANUARY 13, 1919

Mr. CHARLES B. Smith introduced the following bill; which was referred to the

Committee on the Judiciary and ordered to be printed


To amend an Act entitled "An Act to incorporate the American National

Red Cross," approved January fifth, nineteen hundred and five.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section four of the Act entitled "An Act to incorporate the American National Red Cross," approved January fifth, nineteen hundred and five, is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 4. That from and after the passage of this Act it will be unlawful for any person within the jurisdiction of the United States to falsely or fraudulently hold himself out as or represent or pretend himself to be a member of or agent for the American National Red Cross for the purpose of soliciting, collecting, or receiving money or material or for any person to wear or display the sign of the Red Cross or any insignia colored in imitation thereof for the fraudulent purpose of inducing the belief that he is a member of or an agent for the American National Red Cross. It shall be unlawful for any person, corporation, or association other than the American National Red Cross and its duly authorized employees and agents and the Army and Navy sanitary and hospital authorities of the United States for the purpose of trade or as an advertisement to induce the sale of any article whatsoever or for any business or charitable purpose to use within the territory of the United States of America and its exterior possessions the emblem of the Greek Red Cross on a white ground, or any sign or insignia made or colored in imitation thereof, or of the words “Red Cross” or “Geneva Cross” or any combination of these words. If any person violates the provision of this section he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction in any Federal court shall be liable to a fine of not less than $100 or more than $500, or imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or both, for each and every offense.”


Hearings held by the Committee on Patents, House of Representatives,

January 24, 1919



January 24, 1919. The committee met at 10:45 o'clock a. m., Hon. Charles B. Smith (chairman) presiding:

The CHAIRMAN. The committee is called to take up H. R. 14330, a bill to amend an act entitled "An act to incorporate the American National Red Cross, approved January 5, 1905.” Col. Hartfield is here with several representatives of the Red Cross and is ready to make his statement to the committee.


The CHAIRMAN. Colonel, will you state how you represent the Red Cross?

Mr. HARTFIELD. I am the legal adviser of the war council of the American Red Cross; and there are present also, Dr. Axson, Secretary of the Red Cross; and Mr. Hughes, assistant legal adviser of the war council.

The International Red Cross Society came into existence in 1864 as the result of a conference and a treaty held in the city of Geneva, Switzerland. At that conference there was adopted as the emblem of the Red Cross, out of compliment to the Swiss Republic, the Swiss flag reversed, or, in other words, a Greek or Maltese cross upon a white background. The United States was not technically represented at that conference in Geneva, although all of the historians agree that the creation of the Red Cross and the adoption of a cross as an emblem was largely due to what had been accomplished in the Civil War by what was then known as the United States Sanitary Commission, which was then operating in this country.

In 1882 the United States by appropriate action of the Senate and the Executive formally ratified the Treaty of Geneva of 1864, and since 1882 the United States has really been a party to this treaty in all respects the same as if it had been a signatory party thereto.

The Red Cross emblem has been used by the Red Cross societies of all of the countries that were parties to the Geneva treaty of 1864 continuously since that time, and every civilized nation of importance has become a party to the treaty, either by having been represented there or by subsequent action, as in the case of the United States.

There was a Red Cross Society organized in 1881 in this country, but it never developed into an organization until the following year, 1882. There have been three incorporated Red Cross societies. The present one was not incorporated until January 5, 1905, but it was expressly provided in the charter, by article III thereof, that the present society should succeed to all the rights and property which have been hitherto held, and to all the duties which have heretofore been performed by the American National Red Cross, incorporated by an act of Congress of June 6, 1900. So that, while the date of the present charter is 1905, it is a continuation of the work of the society organized in 1882. Again we incorporated in 1894, and again on June 6, 1900.

When this act to create the present Red Cross was passed it was recognized that some protection should be given to the emblem; that this emblem not only was to be used by the American National Red Cross, but it was being used by all of the Red Cross societies of the various countries and by the Medical Departments of the Army and Navy, and the bill as prepared gave to the Red Cross the exclusive right to the use of the emblem and provided that it should be unlawful to use it for trade and commercial purposes. A penal provision for violation of the statute was incorporated into the law. I am informed, but, of course, I cannot state this on my own knowledge, that at that time, largely at the instance of a very large company manufacturing surgical dressings and surgical goods in New Jersey, and which had commenced to use the emblem in 1894, twelve years after the United States had become a party to the Geneva convent of 1864, there was opposition to the bill in the form it was originally prepared, and as a result of that opposition there was added when the statute was finally amended in 1910 the clause reading:

Provided, however, That no person, corporation, or association that has actually used, or whose assignor actually used said emblem, sign, insignia, or words for any lawful purpose prior to January 5, 1905, shall be deemed forbidden by this act to continue the use thereof for the same purpose and for the same class of goods.

The effect of that provision was, of course, to say that anyone who prior to January 5, 1905, had used for commercial purposes and as a trade mark in their advertising matter the Red Cross emblem should not be liable to criminal punishment thereafter for using it.

sing it. It was then represented, I am informed, to the House committee which had the bill under consideration that there were but a few business houses that would by reason of this provision have the right to use the emblem. As it turns out, it had been used as a trade-mark, either by having it registered in the office of the United States Patent Office or by having used it in interstate commerce, by several hundred concerns that now claim the right to use this Red Cross emblem.

We have had compiled and submit herewith a list merely of those who, prior to 1905, had registered the name in the Patent Office, and this list is, of course, quite incomplete.

(The list referred to is copied into the record in full, as follows:)

Registered trade-marks, United States Patent Office, in which symbol or name of Red Cross or semblance thereof appears, Jan. 1, 1909.

[blocks in formation]

No. of

Name registered

Articles protected


Date since in use

Kind of cross

1, 416 Seymour McCullagh..

Modified Greek.

3, 631

Samuel Slater & Sons
4, 021 Stephen J. Seneca..
5, 338 Smith & Wicks.
5, 592 Eureka Fire Hose Co.
6, 864 Excelsior Lye Co..
7, 786 George B. Browne
9, 372 T. R. Keator & Co..
11, 526 Henry Hinrichs.
11, 544 Leopold E. L. Arp-
11, 889 St. Paul Roller Mill Co.
12, 070 Ricker, Crombie & McLaren
12, 293 do
12, 294 do
13, 076 John Reardon & Sons
13, 511 Sommer, Richardson & Co.
13, 512 do
13, 792 Cooperative Foundry Co.
14. 068 M. Michaelis & Son
14,629 Charles Wright
15, 061 Crompton Co.
15, 256 Paul Hartmann
15, 647 Thal & Howe.
15, 722 A. W. Wills & Son

Wines, liquors, beers, and min

eral waters.
Wigans and cambrics
Hermetically sealed goods.
Oysters, fruits, and vegetables
Hydraulic hose...
Domestic lye..
Medicine for skin diseases.
Portland cement-
Cattle medicine.
Baking powder.
Hard soap
Stoves, ranges, and furnaces
Flavoring extracts.
Cough sirups
Velvets and plushes.
Wood wool and ww padding-

Aug. 19, 1873 May 1872
Apr. 25, 1876 1866.
Sept. 26, 1876 1875..
Nov. 20, 1877 Aug. 19, 1873.
Jan. 29, 1878 August 1877.
Dec. 3, 1878 September 1878.
Dec. 30, 1879 Not stated
May 16, 1882 March 1881.
Sept. 30, 1884 Apr. 25, 1884.
Oct. 7,1884 May 1884.
Jan. 27, 1885 | November 1880.
Mar. 31, 1885 Aug. 1, 1884.
June 2, 1885 do.

Mar. 2, 1886 Nov, 15, 1885.

Modified Maltese

Modified Greek.


Modified Greek.



Modified Greek

15, 799 Julius Maggi & Co.
16, 424 S. Oppenheimer & Co.
16,979 James Martin & Co.
17, 203 T. M. Sinclair & Co.
17, 516 Finlayson, Bousfield & Co.
17,711 Norwood Mfg. Co.
17, 114 Chichester Chemical Co.
18, 093 Thomas Salt & Co
19, 737 J. K. Krieg & Co.
18, 868 do
19,798 Henry N. Palmer.
21, 306

N. W. Con. Milling Co.
22, 052 Cooperative Foundry Co.
22, 674 Arlington U. Betts
23, 618 Eureka Fire Hose Co.
25, 866 Gus. V. Brecht Butchers' Supply Co.
26,372 Schoen & Sommer

July 20, 1886 Mar. 30, 1886.
Nov. 9, 1886 June 1882
Feb. 8, 1887 Nov. 1, 1886
July 19, 1887 January 1886.
Dec. 27, 1887 Oct. 31, 1887
Mar. 6,1888 May 19, 1886
June 26, 1888 February 1888
July 24, 1888 Nov. 28, 1883.
Aug. 21, 1888 Jan. 1, 1887
Mar. 26, 1889 Dec. 10, 1888.
Sept. 3, 1889 Jan. 14, 1889.
Nov. 19, 1889 1886.
Feb. 11, 1890 August 1869.
Mar. 25, 1890 Nov. 1, 1889.
Oct. 15, 1889 Oct. 20, 1887.
July 1, 1890 1858.
June 16, 1891 Apr. 20, 1891.
Jan. 20, 1891 Nov. 1, 1889.
June 30, 1891 Jan. 1, 1889.
June 14, 1892 July 1, 1891.
Nov. 22, 1892 June 1882
Mar. 21, 1893 Apr. 15, 1892.
Sept. 19, 1893 May 28, 1875.
Jan. 15, 1895 July 1, 1894_
Apr. 9, 1895 Jan. 2, 1895.

Meat extracts.
Sausage coloring -
Cotton fabrics
Tripe, hocks, feet, and tongues.
Yarns and threads.
Kindling wood.
Malt liquors.
Button fasteners
Boots, shoes, and shoe laces
Bath robes
Wheat flour.
Stoves, ranges, furnaces
Ribber goods.
Hydraulic and fire hose
Sheep casings.




"Red Cross" in Span-

Any color.
Red, or other.
“Red Cross."
No color stated.
“Red Cross."

Red, or other.
“Red Cross."


Red, or other.
“Red Cross."
Usually red.
"Red Cross."


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