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feet deep before the break, soon increased to 8 feet depth. A good channel can be made through tbe break of this dam by throwing a dam, 200 feet long, from the west bank, 500 feet above and parallel to the one already built on the bank. The lower dam should also be lengthened 200 feet. The channel would then be on the east side of the river, until crossing through the break of the long dam we would again arrive in deep water in the old channel above the shoal. The estimated cost of this improvement is $1,400. The east bank would also have to be protected by a bulkhead of piles and logs. This is estimated at $2,600. Leaving Chitwood Bar we pass down the river 9 miles and reach


These two rapids, being only a mile apart, and each of them being shoal, were surveyed as one rapid. That nearest the top of the map is called Beaver Rapids. The average width of the river at and between these rapids is 700 feet; the bed of the river is large, coarse gravel. The fall of the river from the head of Lone Tree to the foot of Beaver Rapids, a little over a mile, is 5.6 feet. The observed velocity of the current was 204 feet per minute, but in the shoalest part, between the two gravel bars, it was swifter. Between the two rapids the channel is well defined, and contains from 4 to 8 feet of water, but at the rapids it is scarcely 3 feet in depth, and very narrow. Beaver Rapids is navigated without much difficulty, but when in Lone Tree Rapids the boats have to cross the current above the upper gravel bar, and are liable to be swept broadside against the bar. As the swiftest current and smallest gravel are between the two gravel bars, I think that the best place for making a channel. This can probably be done by building a dam from the head of gravel bar No. 2 diagonally across the current to the south shore, 200 feet. This will scour away the small gravel at the foot of bar No. 1. If it does not give a channel sufficiently wide, concentrate the current still more by throwing out a wing-dam from the right bank 300 feet long toward the head of bar No. 1. This will deflect the current toward the left bank, and materially assist the lower dam in producing sufficient scour. The estimated cost of the two wing-dams is $1,500.

If the upper dam should be built, it might cause the left bank to washi, which is low and Hat, and covered with trees. To prevent this we should hare to pile and protect the left bank for a lineal distance of 1,000 feet. This, it is estimated, will cost $5,100.

Four miles below Beaver Rapids we reach


which is about 15 miles below Salem, and a place where the boats frequently ground. The river widens to 750 feet, has a velocity of 300 feet per minute, and a gravelly bottom. Two dams have been built here by the company. The upper one was very rudely constructed, and was not of sufficient length, and the lower one, though being well constructed, is, I think, improperly located. This shoal might be improved by repairing the old upper dam, and extending it 350 feet further out, as indicated on the map. This would leave a water way 400 feet wide, and would soon scour out gravel enough to make a good channel. There is no danger of the left bank washing, as it is a coarse, gravelly shore.

Immediately below the bar the river becomes from 12 to 15 feet deep. The cost of repairing the old upper dam and extending it 350 feet would be $1,200.

Improving Bower's Bar..
Improving Humphrey's Bar
Improving Chitwood Bar.
Improving Beaver and Lone Tree Rapids.
Improving Matheney's Bar..


700 4,000 6,000 1,200


$ 16,000

The wing-dams for which the above estimates were made are of the simplest construction, consisting of logs 2 feet in diameter, and long as possible, to be thrown down diagonally across the current and held in position by four piles, two at each end of each log; willow bush to be lodged against the upper side, and held in place by gravel. These dams would be equally as good as any of those constructed by the company, and might answer the purpose for which they are intended, viz, temporarily improving the navigation of the river at such bars on which they may be placed. The dams already constructed have bene. fited the navigation at certain localities. Navigation has become more difficult at others, but the injury to other parts of the river is not necessarily to be attributed to the wing-dams.

If the river should be improved at Matheney's Bar, Beaver and Lone Tree Rapids, and Chitwood Bar, the result would be that boats might make the trip from Oregon City to Salem in a few hours less time than at present, and would be able to carry a little more freight. As all the boats plying on this river are owned by one company, is questionable whether any improvement on these bars by the Government would cause any reduction in the freight tariff.

Should the two obstacles above Salem be removed, viz, Humphrey's Rapid and Bower's Bar, boats might get to Albany and Corvallis during low-water stage. Before closing this report, I wish to thank assistants Charles F. Brown and S. D. Adair for their valuable services during the survey. Respectfully submitted.


Lieutenant of Engineers. Major R. S. WILLIAMSON,

United States Engineers.


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In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the 12th instant, a state

ment of the amount of free matter passing through the mails during the period of six months ending June 30, 1870.

JANTARY 13, 1871.-Referred to the Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads and

ordered to be printed.


Washington, D. C., January 12, 1871. SIR: In compliance with the resolution of the Senate passed this day, I have the honor to submit herewith a report prepared by my direction, showing, from official returns and estimates, the amount of free matter transmitted through the mails during the period of six months ended June 30, 1870. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Postmaster General. Hon. SCHIUYLER COLFAX,

l'ice-President of the United States.



January 7, 1871. SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report relating to free matter transmitted through the mails for the period of six montas, commencing January 1 and ending June 30, 1870.

On the 17th of December, 1869, the following circular to postmasters was issued by your direction :



Washington, D. C., December 17, 1869. To Postmasters :

The Postmaster General has this day male the following order:

** Ordered : That each postmaster in the United States be instructed to take an accurate monthly account of all franked or free matter deposited at their respective offices for mailing, for the period of six months, commencing January 1 and ending June 30, 1870; and to make special reports thereof to the Third Assistant Postmaster General at the close of each month, embracing the following particulars, viz:

“1. The number of franked or free letters, and the amount of postage that would be chargeable thereon at the established rate of postage.

“ 2. The weight of franked or free matter OTHER THAN LETTERS, and the amount of postage that would be chargeable thereon at the current rates of postage."

Postmasters will carefully conform to the foregoing instructions, USING THE INCLOSED FORM, which must be promptly forwarded to this office at the close of each month.

Should this circular fail to be received at any post office iu time to commence taking an account of free matter on the first of January, 1870, let the return for that month include such portion of the month as may remain when the circular is received. By order of the Postmaster General:


Third Assistant Postmaster General. A supply of blanks of the following form was also sent to each postmaster:

Free mail matter. (NOTE.-The blanks on loth sides of this sheet must be filled by postmasters, and it must be forwarded promptly at the close of each month to the Third Assistant Postmaster General.)

Post Office,


State, (Date.)

, 1870.

Monthly return of franked and free mail matter (letters, documents, etc.) sent from this office for the

month of


Amonnt of postNumber.

age chargeable at established


Bearing frauk of persons entitled to send letters free..
Adressed to persons entitled to receive letters free (as members of Con.

gress, Government Departments, &c., &c.).


Weight. Amount of post


at established Pounds. Oz. rates.


Boaring frank of persons authorized to use the franking privilege
Addressed to persons entitled to receive mail free. ...


I certify that the foregoing is a correct statement.

(Sign here).

Postmaster. Suitable records were provided in which all the post offices were entered in alphabetical order, with appropriate headings for the compilation of the returns, and about the middle of October last the work of entering them was commenced. Eight temporary clerks were employed, the regular clerical force of the Department being insufficient to do this extra work.

Their labors have this day been completed with the following result: The total number of post offices from which reports were due, was 28,492; number from which full or partial reports were received, 8,583; number wholly failing to report, 19,909. In a number of cases the returns received did not cover the whole period of six months; in such cases the returns made were accepted as a basis upon which the whole period was estimated by arerage.

The returns of the 8,583 reporting offices show that within the six months there were transmitted 5,140,796 franked letters, the postage upon which at the established rate amounted to $655,548 55, and 2,047,971

pounds and 10 ounces of other franked matter, such as printed documents, seeds, &c., upon which the postage at the established rates amounted to $260,817 81, making altogether for the 8,583 reporting offices for six months for the postage on free matter the sum of $916,396 39.

This leaves, to be estimated, the free matter transmitted from 19,909 non-reporting post offices. To make the estimate in the fairest way possible, I have deducted from the foregoing returns the amounts reported from fourteen of the largest and most important offices of the country, to wit: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Washington, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Pittsburg, Indianapolis, Detroit, Louisville, New Orleans, and San Francisco. In this way an average is calculated for the 19,909 non-reporting offices, giving for each 289 letters, postage $13 94, and 30 pounds 8 ounces printed and other free matter, postage 83 89; total postage for each office $17 83. I can devise no more liberal plan than this for the utilization of the returns received whereby they may be applied to all the post offices of the country; and yet in my own mind I am satisfied had complete and accurate returns been received from all the offices, the amount of postage would have been at least 25 per cent. greater.

From the above returns and estimates the following grand result is shown: Total number of franked letters for six months 10,894,497, postage $933,070; printed matter, &c., 2,655,196 pounds, postage $338,593 85. Total postage for six months $1,271,663 86; total for one year $2.513,327 72.

For convenience of reference the foregoing facts are tabulated, as follows:

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Respectfully submitted.


Third Assistant Postmaster General. Hon. Jno. A. J. CRESWELL,

Postmaster General.

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