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year. They are indications which were looked for, so that it will be well enough, I think, to remember that one series of experiments, while it points towards a fact, does not settle it. So that you would not be absolutely sure that you are going to get what

he got.

Mr. Hatch - There is a house that is advertising glucose sugar, I believe at three and a half cents a pound. Those glucose products are largely used for adulteration of almost all the sweets that come to America, except, perhaps, the refined sweets. It is produced froin corn and sulphuric acid, and has stood in a similar light with regard to extracted honey by bee-keepers, that oleo. margarine has to butter.

Mr. Daniells Glucose will never be used in sugars, because it doesn't crystallize.

Mr. Hatch — It is used for adulterating syrups mostly. There are instances where they have found remains of corn in kegs pur. chased.

Mr. Daniells — There is no trouble about buying syrups free from corn syrup. That is, you get glucose in all syrups. It is simply an uncrystallized form of sugar that is in the juice of all sugar cane.

Mr. Sheldon We will not ask what it is, so that we know that it is good syrup to put on buckwheat cakes and isn't poison. Captain Blakely, of Saint Paul, I guess, talked four hours upon the prospects in Minnesota of sugar manufacture. The point was, whether he was going to succeed in the enterprise of putting up sugar refineries. I didn't want to know that I wanted to koow whether I, on my little farm, was going to succeed in making syrup off of a little piece of my land ; whether I could send the syrup to my neighbor and get it ground up, and return a couple of barrels of good sugar. If the largest sugar refinery was started in La Fayette county that the world could produce, it would do me no good. They could charge me seventyfive cents a gallon, no matter if it cost only ten cents. I want an opportunity to make my own syrup and sugar, so that I will know what I am eating.

Mr. Lindley - I have raised sorghum cane twenty-one years,

and have manufactured cane nineteen years. I commenced in 1861 to run a sorghum mill, and have run one ever since.

If you plant the seed without taking any pains with it, the weeds will get ahead of it. For the last few years I have adopted this plan: I put water nearly boiling hot on them two or three times during twenty-four hours, just previous to planting. Then I bury the seed in a bag, in the ground, for another twenty-four hours, and if the ground is moderately warm, that seed will be sprouted. I then mark the ground one way, and take the plow and plow the other way, so that this seed is dropped into moist ground. I have found the best results from that so far as plant. ing cane is concerned. I never failed of having a crop.

Now, another remark about the manufacture. I never used lime water in the manufacture, but for a number of years I have used a little salt in the sap when it is first run into the pan. It makes the scum rise quicker and more of it. It is the scum not being properly taken out that produces this green taste. For years I don't think I had any molasses that had the green taste about it.

I never raised any Early Amber, but I made up considerable, last fall. I think I failed in one particular in making up that cane. I think it needs working in an earlier stage of ripeness than any other cane we have been used to working. Year before last, I made up about twenty-five hundred gallons. I haven't found any difficulty in having a market for it. I live near Mazomanie, and if I had four times as much, I would have a mar. ket for it. This year it is fifty cents. I have realized a dollar a gallon.

A voice - How many gallons can you get to an acre?

Mr. Lindley - Our soil is sandy, and don't yield as much as some, but it makes better syrup. I have had one hundred and sixty gallons per acre. I should judge, about a hundred gallons per acre would be the average. My experience has been that the Early Amber does not yield as much, but we haven't had tests sufficient.

A word about this sugar business. Some ten years ago, when we raised the small Black Empire, as it was called, I had almost

11 - W. S. A. S.


whole barrels of sugar from that cane without making any effort to get the sugar. In fact, I never made any effort to get sugar. My impression is, that sugar would go back to molasses under unfavorable circumstances. That is, in a very warm or very damp

I have made molasses that I dare show with any I have ever seen from the south or anywhere; and many barrels of it. In fact, in Mazomanie they won't have any other molasses. There are merchants that are selling nothing else.

Mr. Daniells — Why don't it bring a better price?

Mr. Lindley - I think one reason of that is the farmers all raise it more or less, and we make it up for them. Of course there isn't any demand for it except just in our own neighborhood, and still it is all sold.

Mr. Daniells - Your neighborhood don't affect the price of syrups. Sugar house syrup sells for seventy-five cents readily.

Mr. Lindley - It has perhaps been our own fault. I have had a dollar and a dollar ten, years back, but we keep lowering. Perhaps it is competition in our own neighborbood. In regard to mills, we have six or eight in our township.

Mr. Davis — The gentleman said that sugar could be made from ripe cane. Does he mean that it cannot be made from unripe cane ?

Mr. Hatch - There was a tabular statement made by the department of agriculture showing the results in crystallizable sugar obtained by taking the sorghum in different stages of development; and the greatest per cent. amounting to from fourteen to sixteen per cent from the juice was obtained in ripe cane, and that it decreased from that backward toward the green, and decreased from that point on after frost.

Mr. Davis - H. A. Russell, of Crystal Lake, Illinois, changed a large fruit canning establishment into a sugar factory, and man: ufactured two car loads from unripe cane. He sent me a sample of brown sugar. So that it seems sugar can be made from unripe cane.

Mr. Hatch — Yes, but the per cent. is less.
Mr. Davis - If anybody wants

If anybody wants to see glucose syrup, I think we can show it to him at the Park Hotel. We have as fine a

looking syrup there as I ever saw. The only thing we can depend on is the house we buy it from. We bought some a year ago for sugar syrup, and by some mistake a jug of it was left in the store, and we found a month or two afterwards it was just like paste; so that there could not have been much sugar in it. I know the factories are increasing everywhere. In Buffalo, N. Y., a suit brought out the price of glucose stocks. At one time it amouuted to some fifty or sixty dollars a share, some forty or fifty shares, and at the present time the value is something over two hundred thousand dollars. So it seems there is some profit in making glucose.

Mr. Daniells - If the gentleman will allow me to answer his question, why you cannot make sugar as well from the green cade as from the ripe, I will say it is because in the green cane there are other substances in the juice which must be removed or fermentation sets in, and the sugar is converted into this form of un. crystallizable. It is the nitrogenous matter, the albuminous matter, some acids, etc., that are in the green cane, that prevent obtaining the sugar in its pure form, so that it can be crystallized.

It seems to me in regard to the sugar cane, there is another question that is going to come in; that is in regard to the making of it economically, and I think it will solve itself precisely as mining has solved itself in California, if it shall be proven that this cane can be profitably produced, and that will be that individuals cannot make the cane. In the old system of mining in California, every man worked for himself. Now combinations of capital bave come, and a single man without capital cannot work to advantage. In sugar cane you have to go through with certain operations, and if that can be done on a large scale for a much less per cent. than on a small scale, then it will be done on a large scale.

Mr. Lindley - I stated the wholesale price as we sell it to the storekeepers. I believe they are selling it in our neighborhood at from sixty-five to seventy cents.

Mr. Kellogg — I have been informed in regard to the production of sugar by Mr. Russell the past season, that two car loads of sugar they manufactured at Crystal Lake were sold as sam

ples. I would like to know if there is any gentleman here who knows anything more about it. If those two car loads are scat. tered all over the country, I don't know why we baven't some here.

Mr. Davis — He wrote me they were sent to Chicago and sold there.

Mr. Daniells — Was it free from its raw sorghum taste ?

Mr. Davis — When I first got it I thought I did not taste any of it; afterwards, I thought I did.

Adjourned to 7:30.

Convention met in the assembly chamber of Wisconsin capitol, by request of its honorable members, at 7:30 P. M.

Hon. N. D. Fratt, in the chair.

A paper was read by T. H. Glenn, editor of the Prairie Farmer, on “Marketing the Products of the Orchard and the Garden.”

Mr. Field — I would like to ask Mr. Glenn if he can cite us to a single grower who puts up his fruit in packages of the kinds mentioned, and who ships them to bis commission man and says to him, “You may warrant this now, as I say to you it is all good."

Mr. Glenn — I can, sir. I will risk his name. Mr. A. R. Whitney, of Franklin Grove. I presume you know him, because there is hardly a man engaged in fruit growing in the whole northwest but what knows him. Whatever he sends to the market, he always gets the top of the market for, or a little more.

Mr. Field — He is the exception, is be not, rather than the rule?

Mr. Glenn — Oh, yes; he has satisfied himself that there is more money, more profit in sending his fruit and vegetables to market in that way than in any other.

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