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so as to economize the heat. There is another peculiarity of this deep setting.. The cream is all sweet, and the cans will be perfectly sweet. They don't require washing oftener than once a week, and I don't know but once a month would do as well.

A voice - Does the butter have to be worked over after it is taken out?

Mr. Curtis - I see no harm in leaving it in twenty-four hours if you like, but I have come to the conclusion that it is just as well or better to work it. You must churn your butter at about sixty to sixty.two degrees temperature when it is done in the manner I represented, and the salt is evenly incorporated through it, and it is just the temperature to nicely work and pack away. And I hold that the sooner you get the butter, and the more securely and perfectly you keep your cream and milk from the atmosphere, the better. Consequently so far as that goes it is better to work it over at once. It requires very little working if you follow the plan that I have given. The buttermilk seems to have gone out of it without any effort, comparatively speaking. It requires very little working. There is no danger of destroying the grain of the butter. Experts in trying butter to determine the quality, after putting in the tryer, alınost the first thing is to look at the back of the tryer to see how it looks. That determines whether the grain of the butter has been injured or not. Not only that but there are little particles of brine. That is what they want to see. That is what they will see if you work over your butter as quick as it is churned. They don't want to see a dry butter.

A voice - I would inquire if you don't find difficulty in separating the cream from the milk? Wouldn't he get too much milk?

Mr. Curtis – He would get scarcely any milk with it, but he would have a greater bulk of cream than he would from the milk pans, the old fashioned way. I don't claim that it would make more butter. I believe there is an excess of cream risen here. I think the latter part of the cream that rises is not very rich, and consequently if you do not get it quite all it does not create a loss. Even if I used the old milk pans I would like to get a little milk with it. It churns better.

Mr. Griswold — Сan more butter be made from that process than by setting the milk in cans?

Mr. Curtis -- I made a trial once and found the result a little in favor of the cans.

Mr. Griswold – I bave heard it stated that you could make more butter from using the cans. If that is not the case what is the advantage of this process? Is it only a saving of labor ?

Mr. Curtis — It is in a saving of labor and bringing about a uniform process that will shut out these bad odors.

Calls were made for Hon. Hiram Smith, of Sheboygan Falls, who responded as follows:

In regard to raising cream there has been a great change made within the past few years. We were taught that it should be put in an open pan, and if possible the temperature kept to about sixty-two degrees, requiring thirty-six to forty-eight hours; but a process has been discovered by which it can be raised in six hours in its greatest perfection, and always the same. You bring it to the same condition in these deep cans submerged in ice water. Mr. Curtis is afraid of the royalty. I buy what I consider the best if there is a royalty on it. I buy the Cooley can. There is a faucet at the bottom and you turn the faucet and the pans are skimmed. The milk runs out and the cream remains. There is royalty to pay, but where you are doing a good deal of business — forty or fifty cows — the royalty appears less and less every day, and the result is the same or a little better. If the milk is taken from the cow and rapidly cooled, the pbilosophy is that the milk condenses and becomes heavier, and then it is in its natural state, which is always heavier than the cream. The cream not being affected by the cold as soon as the milk, the milk becomes heavier and sinks to the bottom, sending every. thing lighter up.

The cream can be raised in three hours, though time is of no importance. It is raised between two milkings, and that is all you care to do. It generally remains in about eleven hours. You simply let in cold water, and as soon as the milk gets as cold as the water, shut off the water, and put in a bushel basket of broken ice to four of these cans. There is nothing

more to do until you want to use a can for the next milking. It requires no special room. It requires no fire. Your wife isn't asking you every few minutes, "How is the fire in the milk room ? ” You can go to the grocery and whittle dry goods boxes while the cream is rising, and it will be in its greatest perfection when you get back. It saves more than one-half the labor. Its result is uniformly good. I have used this system for over a year and a half, and my butter bas brought the top of the market, and it preserves all the aroma of the milk. There is nothing in new, good milk in the least objectionable, any more than in fresh picked strawberries; and the process of making butter under the new plan is just as simple as to mix mortar out of good lime and sand and water.

The result is always as you expect, and there is no secret about it. It doesn't require you to stick your finger in, look wondrous wise, and guess whether the cream is fit to take off or not; but you go and set it, and draw it off at the proper time. It is something that one person can teach another. Under the old method of making butter, it was supposed that here and there one did acquire a tact to get pretty good butter, most of the time. As Mr. Curtis says, there is no use in washing pans. I will add, there is no use in skimming milk, or keeping a fire. If you get rid of keeping a fire, skimming milk, and washing pans, there is three-quarters of butter making work done away with.

There is no doubt that in the course of the year the butter, properly handled, would produce nearly double the amount that any open setting process will produce.

To show that the process of setting in open pans is a by.gone affair, in the recent dairy conventions among the best educated dairymen anywhere, and especially in the International Dairy Fair in New York, not a single open pan was on exhibition. Nobody had anything to sell, because nobody wants to buy them. I would not use them if you gave me a hundred dollars a year. If the people of. Wisconsin, which is one of the very

front but. ter states, would adopt this deep setting system in cold water, they would improve the quality of the butter far beyond anything that has been the case in any process we have had heretofore. I

12 – W S. A. S.

do not know that there is anything more unless some person wishes to ask some questions.

Mr. Brown – Do you ever find, in turning out the cream, a sediment in the bottom ?

Mr. Smith — The pressure is all on the bottom, and what is on the bottom runs out first, and carries out any sediment that may be there.

Mr. Brown — I was talking with a party who told me he had thrown away the faucets and skimmed the cans. This was at a factory where the milk is brought in by different parties.

Mr. Smith — There might be careless milkerz. Mud is heavy and will settle.

A voice — What is a man going to do who has one little Jersey cow; she gives rich milk, but not enough to fill a can?

A voice-Set it in a quart can.

Mr. Smith — I would sell that Jersey cow to some of these city fellows and buy an Ayrshire that will fill the can.

Hon. I. C. Sloan, Madison — As new processes are under discussion, I should like to ask the intelligent dairymen present what they know of an article which has been mentioned here which is being sold as a substitute for butter, that is oleomargarine.

I recently saw an article to the effect, briefly, that in 1869 a Frenchman made the discovery that butler was nothing more than the fat of the animal dissolved by its heat, and distributed through the milk; and that by an artificial process that fat could be made into butter of a better quality, as claimed, than any produced from the milk of the cow. After that discovery was made an establishment was started in Paris for the manufacture of this article. It was immediately prohibited by the French Government until the Board of Health of Paris should investigate the subject and see whether the article produced was noxious or innoxious in its use.

After that investigation the French Government not only removed the prohibition from the sale of the article but also excluded from all the hospitals in France the butter which was made in the ordinary way from milk, and substituted as purer and better, oleomargarin". The article further said there were seven

such manufactories in Paris; that in Holland, where a patent had been taken out, there are now seventy such establishments, one or more establishments in New York, and recently it has been established in Chicago, and litigation has sprung up there in regard to the infringement of the patent; but that it is extending very rapidly. It is making its way very rapidly, not only in Europe, but in this country also.

I would be glad to know if any of these gentlemen have seen this article, and whether there is any truth in the statements that it is equal in quality to butter made in the ordinary way.

Mr. Smith - I will say in reply to Mr. Sloan, that I have read the article that he refers to, and bad read before in regard to oleomargarine butter, and it is a fact that it is taking the place of ordinary dairy butter; and it is better butter than store packed dairy butter. Nearly all the restaurants and many of the hotels use it almost exclusively in New York now. It was on the table in New York where a large number of dairymen boarded during the International Dairy Fair. The president of the International Dairy Fair deals largely in that article — sells immense quantities of it, and so alarming has it become to dealers that they refuse to buy dairy butter because this rod is held over them. It can be manufactured for twelve or fourteen cents, but it is usually sold for twenty and twenty-two cents, and it prevents old butter dealers from laying in a store of winter butter as they used to do to sell through the winter. That trade has been ruined, and all who make dairy butter, and take it to the stores hereafter, will meet this very difficulty, and they cannot compete with the oleomargarine.

It is better than almost any store in Wisconsin takes in ; but it does not come in competition with creamery butter. It is tallow at the best. It is neutral. At that hotel in New York, when there were not less that six judges who had been appointed for dairy purposes, some refused to admit that it was oleomargarine, and it was referred to a gentleman who is the highest authority in dairy matters, and he pronounced it oleomargarine, for the reason that though it was solid and firm and showed as nice as any butter, it was neutral - bad no aroma. In making

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