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I wanted to have it brought out last night in the discussion of the advantages of one creamery over another. Now those that have used the Cooley creamery know that that is an important point claimed by that invention; that any odors or taint that the milk may have taken in from any source, will pass out of it into the water during the time the cans stand in the water.

If it would be considered in order, I would like to speak of the test that has come through my experience. My creamerytank was constructed so that the water flows in from the pump, and through that into an overflow tube for the supply of my stock in the yard; but during the first cold weather that pipe froze up so that when it became necessary to change the water, or to renew it, it had to be dipped out by hand. Being so cold that ice formed on top of this tank, we supposed there would be no necessity of any change in the water being made. There is the temperature all right, but after three or four days we discovered a had smell arising from that water, and we at once changed it — dipped it out. We found in continuing that plan of dipping it out, that it was necessary to be done once in two or three days at furthest, or else there would be a bad odor very plainly arising from the water, without any cause that I could know of, only what came from the milk.

Since having that test I have come to the conclusion that the milk received the odor from the stable during milking, or before it was brought to the creamery, and it was therefore imparted to the water; and that led me to the conclusion that I must make a revolution in my stable. We had never discovered any defect in our butter or milk in the former method of making butter.

Mr. Webster - I have had some experience in these barn cellars that our friend speaks of. I do not approve of them at all unless they are well ventilated. For sheep I would not recommend them ; though in all my travels around this state, where there is a new barn now building, if there is a bank or side hill, it is the universal practice to build a basement for cattle, horses and sheep; and in Walworth and Racine counties, I find that the sheep men there are building these basements for their sheep ex

pressly; but for my part I would rather have a sheep barn built on top of the ground; but for cattle, with a good ventilation, it is different.

The first barn I built was some twenty years ago, and I made one mistake, and that was, I thought we could go no higher than twelve feet; but I think of building another, and instead of having twelve foot posts, have twenty-four or twenty-six foot posts. I have a barn that I built expressly for sheep, built on top of the ground, and the first story is made of stone. I have windows so that there is a free current of air through whenever I want it. When I want to shut up the barn I can do so. When I built my first barn we did not know anything about hay forks, and I thought it was as high as I wanted to pitch hay.

I find in talking with farmers in Wisconsin that it is practiced universally, and they all approve of it, to build a basement, but have it well ventilated. We get more room for the size of the roof.

Now one word on wool, and I sit down. The advantage in raising wool is that we can send it off cheaper than we can our butter and cheese.

Mr. Seymour — I wish to ask the gentleman who spoke about using the Cooley creamery, and running the water from that to his water tank for his cattle, if he does not think that the water, which has become so foul from the effects of the odors in the milk, is not fit to be run into his water tank for his cattle to drink, or his cows particularly.

Mr. Olds - When the whole thing is in working condition there is no perceptible bad odor.

Mr. Hazeman - I was not present when the paper was read. There appears to be some talk in regard to basement stables for

I have been looking around with a view of repairing my barns and getting them in the best shape I can. From what ob. servations I have made I should favor building stables on top of the ground. 1 do not like a basement. Dairymen, most of them, keep their cows in a barn through the winter most of the time, especially in cold weather. When they are more comfortable in the barn than out in the yard they want to be in the barn. And


a basement is more difficult to ventilate and dry out than a stable on top of the ground. It is like a cellar in winter time — always damp.

A voice — Do you include all cattle ?
Mr. Hazeman — I am talking about cows.
Mr. Hiram Smith - If he doesn't, I do!

Mr. Hazeman - If you want to live in a cellar, go there and live. I prefer to be on top of the ground. I don't want my cows in a cellar. I want them where it is dry and wholesome.

Mr. Olds — I will simply state that the basement to my barn is wholly above ground. The only defect that I can discover is the lack of drainage.



The subject upon which I propose to speak for a few minutes is of great interest to the people. I have got simply a few headings, as the preachers used to say, for second, tbird, etc. I have no written speech.

I feel honored to have the privilege of speaking before this intelligent audience, because when I get into a convention of the farmers of a great state like Wisconsin, I know that I am among the men who read and think, and as a matter of course I feel more delicacy in speaking than I would in some other crowd.

This is an age of progress. Probably there are few men who are up with the times. One great emergency follows another to such an extent that it is impossible for us to keep up with them. I am not an old man, but I can remember very well, gentlemen, when we used to use the old Berkshire plow. Probably there are young men in this room who do not know what that was. I have reaped many a day with a common hand sickle. I have used a flail to thresh the grain, and then hauled it to market in wagons. We traveled when we did not go horseback, in the old stage coaches, and plodded along twenty or thirty miles a day and thought we were doing well.

What do we see now? We see nicely burnished plows on wheels, going right along and turning up your sod or your soil to the depth of six, eight or ten inches, as you desire. You see a beautiful machine going over the wheat field, a man driving two horses, and the binder taking it off better than any man can do it. You see my friend J. I. Case's beautiful machine that be exhibits at our fairs and elsewhere, a thing of beauty and a joy forever, run by steam or by horse power. Wbat a beautiful arrangement it makes, and how beautifully it prepares the grain for the mill or for the market.

Now you are ready to say, "what does that have to do with cattle?” When I think about improvements my mind rups away, and there is no telling where I may go. My friend Mr. Smith said ihat progress was very slow in agriculture. I am willing to admit it, but improvements in agricultural machinery have fairly outstripped some other of the interests and the great interest of our country -"

" Cattle.” We start from the east and travel to the entire west. You don't see any of the implements of husbandry that I first spoke of, but you will see thousands and tens of thousands of cattle, just the kind methinks that old Jacob raised when he was tend. ing Laban's herd, and when he was serving bis last seven years for Rachel (for he had been fooling with a cross-eyed woman), and there was a time then that cattle did seem to increase faster than any other time in the world's history. He put his rods in the watering places, you know, that he might get a certain type. I don't think there was ever so successful a man in type breeding on earth as Jacob, for he bred them all exactly alike, and there are lots of them in this country to-day.

Now, gentlemen, while you are making grand improvements in your agriculture in different ways, which is all right, and just as it should be, at the same time you are very much lacking, and are not doing your duty in the way of getting improved breeds of cattle.

There are in the United States, as near as we can ascertain, about sixty million cattle. In what I may say in regard to Shorthorns, I want you to understand that I have no feeling against

any other cattle, and I don't think there should be any enmity between those that are raising them. There is plenty of room for all the different breeds, and I am only sorry that we have not got more of each and every thoroughbred kird. We ought to have. Of the sixty million cattle, there are about sixty thousand pure bred cattle in the United States. Now we want to ascertain, if we can, the difference between thoroughbreds and the native animal. The end and aim of the people is to make money. That is our business as far as the things of this earth are concerned. Of course we are all working for the better country beyond, and we don't want to forget that as we go along. But so far as the things of this world are concerned, money is the grand end and aim, and it is right and legitimate; and if God has given a man the capacity to make money, and he doesn't im. prove that talent, he will be held accountable in the great day of judgment; and he ought to be.

Some men say the thoroughbreds are not going to be of any account very much longer because there are so many of them; but if all cattle were thoroughbreds there would be the same number there is now; and in this country they would be worth enough to pay the government debt, over and above what the cattle are worth to-day. That is a big item, gentlemen, but it is

even so.

Now we come to the practical part of it. It is not necessary to say anything more about Short-horns. I have been met with this question since I came to this town. Men say, "I am not able to buy a Short-horn.” Any man who has got one hundred and sixty acres is too poor to be without one.

I don't mean up where the man talked about, among the Indians, for I did not know that there was any such country in Wisconsin as that. “Did you ever think whether or not you were able to buy a cow worth twenty-five dollars ? ” I say to the man who will tell me he is not able to buy Short-horns. “Oh, yes, I am able to buy a cow worth twenty-five dollars." What does she produce ? She produces another cow worth twenty-five dollars, or a steer that will probably be worth twenty-five or thirty dollars. Now if you buy a Short-horn that is worth one hundred and fifty or

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