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two hundred dollars, what does she produce? Another Shorthorn worth two hundred or two hundred and fifty dollars. Isn't that the plainest proposition in the world. There are no horned animals on the earth that live longer than Short-horos. If you can buy a mean thing, as a matter of course you can buy a good thing. Did any man ever think that he was not capable of buying a bushel of wheat that would raise three, four, five or six more bushels to the acre, than the common wheat we used to sow? We want the best of everything, and ought to bave it; and in a country like this, and among intelligent people like this, we cannot very well afford to do without it.

Now I will give you a little illustration of what a single Shorthorn can do. This is the case. It has been done. It can be done again. Mr. John W. Jones, of Stewartville, Clinton county, Missouri, purchased in 1868 bis first Short-horn heifer for one hundred dollars. At his sale of Short-borns in 1877 at St Joe, Missouri, he made the following statement to myself and others. It is also a matter of record in some of the papers : Up to this time I have sold seven bulls for $1,065. At that sale he sold twenty-two females for $3,910, and five bulls for $635. Now, gentlemen, I want you to remember that was in 1877, and there are no gilt-edged prices or anything about this. This was a Nannie Williams or a Ruby - a very well bred and good animal; but it shows what any man can do. In nine years and a half he had as the produce of one beifer, forty-two head, with eight heifers to drop calves within the next six months; or in other words, making fifty-four animals in ten years from the single cow. Now any man can do that. He might not always do it, but with any. thing like the same care and attention he could. A gentleman here remarked that it was necessary for a man to give his time and attention to whatever he was engaged in. There is nothing that is truer than that in the world. God said away back a long time ago, that man

shall eat bread by the sweat of his face." It is the same thing to-day; and if we could only instill into our business the principle of being honest, upright and just, and then let people learn that in order to succeed they must give whatever they are engaged in their time and attention, there would be no failures in all this country.

Now I am going to tell you of a case that probably would not be developed every time. Not likely to be. In 1863 John G. Taylor, who lived at Hillstown, Illinois, went to Kentucky, and John M. Paimer, who was a stalwart then and a democrat now, was on one side, and Morgan was on the other, and as a matter of course Short-horns were worth as much then as they were some other time. He sent down there and told them to buy the best Short-born yearling beifer that could be bought for a hun. dred dollars. He bought a Lonan heifer. That was September, 1863. Taylor was killed about 1873. His boys conducted the business and the cattle were sold except the bulls, which had been sold, and what were sold from that cow produced over eleven thousand dollars; making a thousand dollars a year almost for a hundred dollar investment.

There is no man living to day, if he will buy a good Short-horn or two, and take them on to his farm, give them the necessary care and attention, but what can make more money for the investment, I will venture to say, than in any other business he can engage in, notwithstanding my friend Smith has made lots of money out of milk, cheese and butter. But there is a heap of work attached to dairying —a great deal more than there is to beef raising. Still you must give both your time and attention.

Now I will direct your attention more particularly to the principal work. Do you know that in this country of ours there are a great many people, and beef is one of the grand interests of the farming part of our country? And as long as there are people on the earth we will have to have beef. In fact, the time has come when a great many people are not as favorable to pork as they used to be. And there is no hotel that is properly kept in this country but has good beef on its table. Consequently there will always be a great demand for beef. Another demand has sprung up very recently, and it is making a wonderful mark in the products of our country and the interests of our country. In October, 1875, Tim Eastman, who once lived near Madison, in the same township as does Gen. Bryant, shipped the first lot of cattle for beef purposes to Liverpool, from New York. The next year there was a few thousand dollars worth shipped. In 1877 still

more - quite an increase. In 1878 there was about $55,000 worth shipped, and a heavy embargo laid upon it all the time. The consequence was that much of the beef went in quarters that otherwise would have gone on foot. This year just past we have shipped over twelve million dollars worth of cattle to the eastern market. Now what kind of cattle does it take to go to the market? How does the market run in Chicago ? Beef steers from 3 1.2 to 5 3-4 cents. What kind of cattle are bringing 4 and 4 1-2 cents to-day? Native four-year-olds that will weigh twelve, thirteen or fourteen hundred pounds. What kind are bringing 5 to 5 3.4? You will find cattle coming three years old, some past three years old, grade cattle, that are bought for export purposes. Can a man afford to take a scalawag steer and raise him until he is three or four years old, and get forty, fifty or sixty dollars, as the case may be, when he ought to have a good grade for which he could get seventy-five or a hundred ?

I will give you a little illustration in regard to what can be done in the way of raising steers. We have a little farm

or at least my wife has, and I live with her - and we sold in 1875 eighty head of two-year-old steers at $97.50 per head, the first of March. They were cattle that would be three years old in the spring. We sold them a little later than this in the season. We called them two years old. Two months later we sold fifty-six natives, three years old, for $71.40. We had $26.10 more for the two year olds, or those coming three years old, than those coming four years old, and fed the latter two months longer.

A voice — How about the amount that each class were fed?

Col. Judy - From the time we got the three-year-olds they were treated exactly the same way. We had had them about a year. Now there was $26.10 difference in the selling price. A year's keep added, $24 (you can't afford to keep a steer for less), would make $50.40 difference, and that is a very good price for any man to sell a common steer for. That is the profit, if you please.

Gen. Gillette sold, in December last, two hundred and fifty head of three year olds, past, to Nelson Morris, averaging about nineteen hundred pounds, for $5.50 per hundred. Another gen

tleman, Malcomb Hubel, who lives in Menard county, sold to Mr. Heath, of Toledo, two hundred and fifty-six head of three year old steers in December, 1879, averaging eighteen hundred and fifty pounds, for which he received $5.50 at home.

The other day, as I came along, there was a gentleman coming up who had bought three car loads in our county. They weighed 1,550 pounds, and he paid $5.00 per hundred weight. He told me he could buy the same aged cattle for from $3.00 to $3.75 and $4.00, weighing about 1,200 or 1,250 pounds. You see what a wonderful difference there is.

Now I will give you a little bit of report from Mr. Pliny Nichols, who is one of the best posted men in Iowa.

Mr. Pliny Nichols, a breeder well known in the west, made a statement in April, 1877, of what results might be attained by good handling of common, grade, and thoroughbred cattle, respectively. Mr. N.'s prices are those of the Chicago market in 1877. The "results" are as follows: Common cattle, 34 years, average 1,400 pounds, @ 4 cents per lb., $63; grades, 1 blood cattle, 3 years, average 1,600 pounds, @ 57 cents, $84; thoroughbred cattle, 3 years, average 1,800 pounds, @ 6 cents, $108. Hence, with the same handling, the difference in price of grades over common cattle would be $21, and of thoroughbred over common cattle, $15. But by the common method of bad handling he estimates that we only get an average of $10 per head for our cattle, turned at three to five years. According to the biennial census of Iowa in 1875, there were 2,075,243 head of cattle in the state. Supposing that one-fifth, or say 400,000, were "turned" or sold each year, Mr. Nichols shows what would be gained by the state through the substitution of grades and thoroughbred, and the proper handling of them, over common cattle badly handled : 400,000 common cattle, comraon handling, at $10

$16,000,000 400,000 common cattle, good handling, at $63..

25,200,000 400,000 grades, 2 bloods, good handling, at $84.

33, 600,000 400,000 thoroughbreds, good handling, at $108..

43,200,000 Profit of good over bad handling, common cattle

8,800,000 Profit of grades over common cattle, good handling

8,400,000 Profit of thoroughbreds over common cattle, good handling... 18,000,000 Profit of thoroughbreds, with good handling, over common cattle, as commonly handled ...

27,200,000

Granting,” says Mr. Nichols, “that, as now handled, common cattle pay expenses, the difference, as shown above, would be mostly net profit; making a net annual profit of over $20,000,000 to the farmers, and consequently to the state of Iowa; a profit sufficient to soon wipe out the mortgages on our real estate, and make us independent and prosperous beyond calculation."

Now, gentlemen, these are things that can be done and ought to be done. And in order to demonstrate what I have said to you, please go over this afternoon and bid on the animals that are going to be sold. Now, gentlemen, you want to have cattle that are profitable for you to raise. "You ought to take good agricultural papers, that will tell you how to manage and manipulate and all this kind of thing, and what the effect of various crops will be, and so on. And by the way, there sits my friend Mr. Glenn, who is the representative of the old Prairie Farmer, one of the best papers in the world. I say nothing against anybody else's paper. It comes from the best state to-day in America. We have the National Live Stock Journal, which is the paper of the nation — the paper of the world; and you will get from that all the stock gossip, and you will get items in every paper that you get worth much more than the paper costs a year. I have no interest in any of these papers, but I recommend that you supply yourself with them; and there is nothing that agricultural fairs and associations could do better than to give premiums for that

kind of papers.

By the way, I see Eastman sitting over there. He will let you have the National Live Slock Journal for $2.15 a year, and clubs at more reasonable rates.

Mr. Hiram Smith - I would like to ask the gentleman the proper method of treating these cattle that sell for five dollars and a half a hundred the first six months.

Col. Judy - I will tell you how we treat ours. We are not in a dairy region. We gave got a number of cows on our farm, and only use what milk and butter we want for the family. Consequently the first four or five months our calves get plenty of milk. Mr. Hiram Smith - My object in asking the question was

14 - W. S. A. S.

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