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excelled, I think, by any other breed of cattle, taking into consideration quantity and quality of milk.
Sec. Geo. E. Bryant - Before we come to the general discussion, I would like to ask this question: I received a letter from the commissioner of agriculture saying that it had been reported to him that there had been discovered by some one in Wisconsin, a grass called the paper grass; and he wanted to know if I knew anything about it; that it was far better than straw or any of the things generally used for making paper.
Chester Hazen - In this dairy country, where the dairy interests far exceed the beef products, it seems to me dairy stocks should be noticed, at least, in our agricultural conventions. While each particular breed of cattle fills their place in the list for the several purposes for which they are bred, it cannot be denied that the milking breed, or dairy cows, are the stock for the common farmer of Wisconsin.
As there have been many papers and addresses presented to our conventions on this subject, I will confine myself to a few of the very many statistics of the products of the Ayrshire cow. I will give the result of four months' milking of the Ayrshire cow Flora Temple, bred by J. F. Converse, of Jefferson county, New York, and sold to J. F. Brown, Providence, R. I., who owned her when the following results were attained :
Weight of cow, 1,075 lbs. Dropped calf April 25, and in May
gave an average of 24 quarts of milk per day, and a total of.. 1,592 lbs. In June, gave an average of 20 quarts of milk per day, and a total of...
1,84812 lbs. In July, gave an average of 26 quarts of milk per day, and a total of...
lbs. In August, gave an average of 2413 quarts of milk per day, and a total of..
1, 601 lbs.
Six times her live weight in four months, and 535 pounds over!
Mr. Lawrence, of Massachusetts, owned an Ayrshire cow that made 240 pounds of butter in twelve weeks—an average of twenty pounds per week. J. M. Smith, Esq., of Green Bay, president of
the Horticultural Society (perhaps some gentleman present may be acquainted with him), made 571 pounds of butter from his Ayrshire cow Jennie in one year.
I will give a statement of the production of an Ayrshire gradethe cow Old Creamer, owned by Gen. S. D. Hungerford, of Adams, Jefferson county, New York. Her live weight was 1,080 pounds, and her best yield was 3034 pounds of milk in three days. She gave an average of ninety-six pounds per day through the month of June. Old Creamer is three-fourths Ayrshire. I will give results of some of the cows imported and bred and owned by J. F. Converse, of Jefferson county, New York. The Ayrshire cow Rosa gave sixty-two pounds of milk per day, ten consecutive days in June, on grass feed alone. Dolly Varden gave forty-five pounds of milk per day when two years old. The cow Jane Pender, bred by J. F. Converse, gave in January her live weight in milk in twenty-four days. The cow Ayrshire Lass gave seventy-eight pounds of milk daily, and Red Rose gave eighty-four pounds daily. The two last cows named were milked for the trial at New York state fair.
It is estimated that the consumption of milk and its products is four times as much as that of beef, and that the product of a good dairy cow per annum is equal in value to a four old bullock sold for beef. From this we can form some idea of the value of first class dairy cows to the Wisconsin dairyman.
In order to present this dairy business to this convention, I wish to make some estimates that will approximate very closely to the aggregate product of the dairy. We have at this date not less than 18,000,000 cows in America. At an average of fifty dollars to the cow this would amount to $900,000,000. Of this amount Wisconsin proposes to go in for her share.
A Talk on Pruning und Grufting. Mr. Olds - I would like to ask Mr. Peffer what he would do with these young, thick heads, like Perry Russet and Northern Spy. Would be let them take their natural course?
Mr. Peffer -- All those that are thrifty, upright growers, instead of trimming from below up, I'd trim from the top down, so as to make the limbs spread out.
Mr. Olds — Take out any limbs to trim them?
Mr. Peffer — Yes, some, but not so as to expose the limbs, that have been shaded by that thick foliage to the sun at once.
Mr. Olds — Does not your experience lead you to conclude that many of that class of trees that seem to have such a thick headed babit require that system, to be allowed their natural way to a great degree?
Mr. Peffer --- All the foliage grows upwards, and on the Northern Spy and the Perry Russet the leaves as a general rule are peaked; they always grow straight up; the consequence is they do not form blossom buds, and even if they do the shoots take all the sap, so the blossoms will fall off before they set.
Mr. Olds -- I want to bring out more explanation in regard to the process of root pruning large apple trees that are in a thrifty, vigorous condition and do not bring much fruit like the Flushing Spitzenberg. It never bears much, but it is an excellent tree.
Mr. Peffer — If a tree is growing too fast, ard you do not want to touch the tops, you want to prune the ends of the roots, not so as to take big roots, but a little on the outside of where the limbs spread, either by cutting them off with a spade, or take a good plow with a sharp coulter and cut deep enough so as to cut the ends, so as to stop the flow so as to make too much root; to eicken the tree in fact; that is all.
Mr. Olds — The question with me in regard to that has been, whether it needs to be retarded in its growth or some sort of a fertilizer applied to it different from what the soil produces.
Mr. Jordan - In regard to unfruitful fruit trees that become large enough to produce and do not bear, I find there is a growing habit among some men who are raising orchards, of girdling the tree, thereby bringing it into immediate fruitfulness. There is a little risk attached to this if it is not done at the proper time; it may kill the tree, yet if it is done at the right time you may strip three feet of bark off the body of the tree; peel it entirely bare and it does not kill the tree.
Mr. Kellogg What time is that?
Mr. Jordan It is some time about the first of June. I think it would be about the middle or last of May.
Mr. Field — When the new bark is forming on the inner part of the tree.
Mr. Jordan — Anything that injures the life of the tree produces fruitfulness. It is the nature of all plants to propagate their species before they die; consequently, if you do anything, root-pruning answers the same purpose, though it is more difficult. I would advise those who are going to practice this, to take a limb or a number of limbs and strip off the bark. Some say you need not take much, a quarter of an inch answers the same purpose as a larger space. It simply stops the flow of sap aud produces fruit buds; the sap that is used in some way in the bark is used in forming fruit buds. There was a question or two asked me since I made the remark about grafting early in the spring. Some do not seem to understand it fully and doubt it a little. It is a new idea to graft in January, February and March. I think I am safe in saying that any man who is an experimental grafter, and understands it, will graft the first warm days that come. I do not care how soon it is. Do it just as he does in the spring, and he will say he never had better success. I never have failed with any of my early grafting. I have done some already this season.
Mr. Field - You would not do it when the limbs are frozen?
Mr. Jordan - No, sir; any day a man can work out comfortably. Another thing, if you graft at that season of the year, and practice as some parties do, making your wax with tallow, your work will be a failure. I never use tallow in out-door work ex. cept in the ground. Instead of tallow use linseed oil to thin your
I will give the receipt: Three parts of resin, one of beeswax; linseed oil sufficient to soften it, so that it will pull and work (like taffy candy does in the house) out of doors, the way you want to use it. I never use paper, cloth or anything but the clean wax, pull it into a ribbon and wind it around, covering all the wound and the graft. An old orchard man asked me a moment ago, whether in cutting the wood it did not receive damage from freezing. I told him no, because the wounds are all covered
with wax, and it is no more liable to injure it because it freezes hard, than if there had been no wound made. I grafted a number of seasons when the mercury went 20 degrees below zero, and never had better success than I did with that grafting.
Mr. Haight -- I would like to ask if the gentleman would propose the same with plum or cherry trees that he would with apple?
Mr. Jordan - I have been successful with grafting the plum into the wild plum early in March or April ; nearly as successful as with the apple. I think my cherries grow about as well as the plums. I think that nine-tenths of those that are put in graft of the plums and cherries grow. I seldom lose a graft that I put in early of the apples. Late grafting almost always fails. Another thing, some farmers think that nobody but an experienced hand can graft. That is a mistake. Any man or boy, if he is a common work hand, no matter how clumsy he is, can graft with very little practice. One summer I did all my grafting because I was so particular. Last year I had a German boy about 16 or 17 years old, who was rather a stupid fellow, and I set him at work at it, and watched each day or part of a day, when I would go back to see if he was doing it just right. I found a good deal of fault with him about some trees, but still his grafting did as well as mine. He was a common hand, and never did any before in his life. It is the way you prepare your wax and put it on, more than any other one thing.
Mr. Peffer – You would have to be particular in getting the bark united ?
Mr. Jordan — Yes, but still they have so long a time, a month or six weeks, to form this callous, where it is grafted early, and that is going on every pleasant day; consequently they are united before it becomes time for the sap to flow.
Mr. Olds -- Did you ever use cloth ?
Mr. Jordan -- Yes, I have used paper and cloth and have every time fallen back to using the plain, simple wax. When I melt the beeswax and resin together till it is thoroughly melted, I take my pan or dish off the stove and go out into the yard, and I then commence to pour in my linseed oil and stir as I pour in.