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tucked, or in folds, or frilled into strips of insertion-work, either the length or the width-way, and always trimmed with a little work or edging on the top. When made, they are about three mails deep, and five nails wide at the top, and tapering to three nails at the waist. They are almost always made the straight way, particularly when they are intended to wash.
A SIMPLE COLLAR.
This is a particularly simple pretty collar, and is frequently made of net or muslin, trimmed with narrow work or muslin. It has a broad hem all round, through which satin ribbon is passed. The collar is merely a straight piece, eight nails deep and fourteen nails wide. Double it in half lengthwise, and also width-wise to find the centre, and then cut in a straight line from A B, at the top, to the centre. The points, A B, each fall over, as seen in the Plate, and give the appearance of a second collar. The ends should be a little hollowed out, to make the whole set better.
The corner or tip to be rounded off, beginning at two nails from A, at the bottom, to one nail above
A, at the side.
PLATE 13, FIG. 36. This is a small and simple shape for a round collar, with a smaller one upon it. When the larger is cut, the lesser one may be cut by the eye, only taking notice to shape it off more abruptly in front than the other.
Length of square ....................................... 6#
Space from C to D .......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l?
A SCHOOL-GIRL’S TIPPET.
This is an economical mode of making tippets for poor children, or charity schools, of remnants of cloth, print, &c. Cut a circle in paper, of the right size, and pin it on the carpet or table cloth, whilst you arrange strips of your material on it, in regular lines, as in the Fig. ; two or three strips may cross each other at right angles; between them should be other straight pieces, and then triangular bits will fill up the circle. Black, orange, crimson, blue, and brown cloth, look very well.
This is made of the list of flannel, the selvage of cloth, or any other warm material, and is sewed on to calico; cut a lining in the shape required, and beginning at the bottom, place layer above layer, or strip above strip, something in the way that the many capes of a coachman's great coat are done: the list or cloth is not put on quite flat, but is a very little fulled. It is then lined with flannel or cloth, and is a most comfortable and strong tippet.
Petticoats are made of calico, twill, dimity, cambric, and jaconet muslin, sometimes for mourning, or for wearing under thin dresses of silk and satin: for the middling and lower classes, they are of calico, strong dimity, calimanco, stuff, and bombazine: they are made in various ways, which will be described in the following pages, and the patterns given: the figures and sizes of persons differ so essentially that scales will not be attempted.
Petticoats are in three distinct parts—the skirt, the body, and the sleeves, the varieties of each will be treated of in their turn.
Skirts have generally from two, to two and a half breadths in them, according to the width of the material of which they are made: they are sometimes finished at the bottom with a deep hem, three nails broad, tucks, or worked muslin. Sometimes they are bought with cotton runners, woven in them at the bottom, six or eight nails deep, which make the dress stand out, and if the gown is of a clinging material, causes it to hang better. Skirts are generally made with the opening behind, but for elderly persons or servants, it is at the sides, the seams being left unsewed for about four nails from the top; sometimes they are furnished with pockets on one or both sides; for a description of which, see Pockets. Skirts may be set on to the body, either equally full all round, plain under the arms, and full at the front and back, or with all the fulness behind. Servants frequently wear their petticoats merely set into a tape round the waist, without any body, and with or without tape shoulder-straps, to keep them up. SUnder or middle petticoats are also made in this manner.
BODIES OR WAISTS.
These are made either full or tight to the figure.
Tight or plain bodies consist of five parts: the front, two side-pieces, and two backs (see Fig. 1). The front is always cut on the cross, and reaches from below one arm to the other: the side-pieces are also cut crosswise on one side, and straight on the other, the straight side being joined to the front, and that which is cross being stitched to the backs, which are straight behind. Fig. 1 represents a tight
body made up, for a small person. Observe that the various directions of the lines drawn on the engravings, represents the selvage-way of the material, as a better guide for the inexperienced. In making up, all the parts should be back-stitched together: the band ought to be very strong; it is often made of webbing or stout tape. Petticoat bodies may be made with or without sleeves, according to the taste of the wearer. w Full bodies are made in a similar manner to tight ones, excepting that two nails more are added in width to the front, so that when laid open it is ten nails and a half at its greatest extent, instead of only seven and a half, like the plain body, and half a nail is also given to each back. The front is cut straight instead of cross, in the full bodies. (See Plate 14, Fig. 2.)
SLEEVES. For figures of sleeves, see Plate 12 and the descriptions annexed. NURSING PETTICOATS. PLATE 14. For the convenience of those mothers who nurse their infants, the petticoat body in front may be opened in various ways. PLATE 14. FIG. 3.
The most general mode is simply to have the front of the body in two pieces, so as to open in the middle before, hemming it on each side, and letting the parts tie or button together at the top : it is as well to set the two sides of the front into the band, so that they may over-lap each other, in order to guard against cold. This petticoat fastens behind in the usual manner.
PLATE 14. Flg. 4.
Another approved method is that of having the petticoat open on each side in front, so as to be close at the back. This petticoat body is made in four parts: one back, two side pieces, one front. The back piece is cut the straight way, so as to let A B, Fig. 4, lie selvage-wise.
The shoulder-straps connect the top of the side-piece with the top of the back. The front of the
body is in one piece, being eight nails wide at the top, sloped down to five nails and a half at the
bottom; it is four nails deep in the middle, but being hollowed out, is half a nail deeper at the sides.
This front has a broad hem all round it, and is set into a band, which is attached to the front breadth P