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The keys should each be labelled with the name of the trunk, or box, as Imperial Portmanteau, No. 1., &c. - No trunk should be filled so as to strain the hinges. Every trunk or portmanteau should have straps fixed in the inside half-way up, in order to strap down when the linen is packed over the three flat sticks joined together with webbing, which it is usual to lay at the top of trunks. These sticks are of great use in keeping the linen flat and in its place. Tapes should be nailed across the top of the trunk in the inside, for inventories, &c., to be slipped into. Carpet bags should be purchased with large gores at the sides, as when thus made, they contain many more articles, and more conveniently than when they are only two plain pieces of carpet. They should also have a brass plate. When gentlemen travel much between two places, it is well to have the brass plate moveable, and engraved with one address on each side, so that nothing is necessary but to turn it, thereby preventing the necessity of constantly renewing the written directions: this plate is fastened at one end by a pivot, which is secured between the two locks (every bag should have two locks), at the mouth of the bag, and at the other end of the plate is a brass loop, which is fastened to the lock at either side. In packing for a large family it is a good plan to keep the linen separate by putting a towel between the layers of linen, letting each layer consist only of the clothes of one person, so that on unpacking, the towel containing the linen of each individual is simply lifted out, without the trouble of looking at the marks. When the party sleep several nights on the road, it is advisable to have a large carpet bag containing the night-dress of each individual packed up in night-gown bags, dressing tidies (see plate 24), marked with the initials of the person; by this means much trouble is saved. It is a good plan to sew a camphor bag to the night-gown to prevent the attack of fleas and bugs. In packing, observe the following general rules:— First, divide the light things from the heavy ones; lay drawings, portfolios, books, desks, boxes, shoes, and all hard flat things at the bottom of your trunk, taking great care to fit them together, so as to be perfectly even at the top, putting paper, or any small soft things in the crevices; then put in a packing cloth, and on this lay flannels, linen, &c., &c.: these things should be opened to their full extent, and laid quite flat; in the corners, stockings, rolls of ribbon, &c., may be put; silk or any thick dresses, folded as described above, may be laid at the top, and the whole carefully covered with the packing sheet tightly pinned down, and strong brown paper to prevent the possibility of rain getting in. Bonnets, caps, muslin, or gauze dresses, and collars, should be put in a box by themselves: tapes may be nailed across the box and the bonnets or caps pinned to them to keep them steady. In packing a carpet bag, it is well to roll every thing possible in small compact parcels, and to put them in, very close together, especially at the corners and ends, keeping the bag as flat as it can be, and stretched out to its full extent, width-wise at the same time.


Above all things in a gentleman's wardrobe, it is necessary that the linen should be kept perfectly separate from the cloth clothes, because the dark colour of coats, &c. comes off slightly, and would soil the linen. The following is the best method of folding a coat for travelling, or for putting away in a wardrobe, where there is not much room:— Lay the coat at its full length upon a table, with the collar towards the left hand; pull out the collar, so as to make it lie quite straight; turn up the coat towards the collar, letting the crease be just at the elbow; let the lapel or breast on one side, be turned smoothly back on the arm and sleeves. Turn the R

skirt over the lapel, so that the end of the skirt will reach to the collar, and the crease or folding will be just where the skirts part at the bottom of the waist; when you have done one side, do the same with the other. Turn the collar towards the right hand, fold one skirt over the other, observing to let the fold be in the middle of the collar. It is advisable to have about a yard and a half of brown Holland in which to wrap the coat, trowsers, and waistcoat; this will keep them clean and free from dust. If a coat is new, sponge it the way the nap lies; a silk handkerchief is a good thing to wipe cloth with, when spotted with drops of wet. When a hat gets wet, it should be gently brushed till dry, so as not to crack the felt. Boot-stands should always be made so that the legs of the boots hang downwards. When boots are packed up, they should always be put into cases (see Plate 24), which cases should be marked in pairs. An exact inventory should be kept, and pasted on one of the doors of the wardrobe.


It shows the best taste to make mourning as plain and as little sanciful as possible. The deepest mourning is bombazine trimmed with crape; and entirely crape, or silk and crape bonnet. The next is black silk trimmed with crape: silk and crape bonnet. There is a peculiar kind of very rich silk worn only by widows, and called “Widow's silk.” A third or slighter mourning, is a plain silk dress, with either black or white silk, or even a straw bonnet. Half-mourning is grey or lavender silk in a morning, and the same or white with black ornaments in an evening: bonnet either white or lavender silk, or straw. Bombazine and black silk dresses have broad hems at the bottom, or are turned up with crape from five to eight nails deep; this is cut the crossway, and is put on with a crape piping at the top. The crape should be put on double, or if economy is an object, should be lined with black book muslin, which makes it wear much better, than it would do if put on single. The cape or collar of the dress should be either of silk covered with crape, or of plain silk, edged with hemmed or gaufiered crape, and the cuffs to suit. In very deep mourning, the collar and cuffs are made of white muslin, covered with crape. Frills and caps, either for the bonnet or to wear in the morning, should have the borders of white crape lisse, tulle, or net, with broad hems. The peculiar kind of ribbon worn in mourning is called love ribbon, and may be had either white or black; it is very plain gauze ribbon, without any pattern on it but stripes. Young persons, or those who are in mourning for young persons, frequently wear a good deal of white, as for instance, white ribbons, handkerchiefs, and white gloves sewed with black: very young children, only wear white frocks and black ribbons. For caps, collars, veils, see under their respective heads. It is the wisest economy in the end to buy the best or jet black crape, it is more highly curled or craped than the blue black, which makes it more expensive, but it wears well to the last, whereas the other, even when new, does not look handsome. The following observations may be found useful in some cases, though they should be received with allowance, according to the circumstances in which the individuals are placed. Mourning is worm for a husband or wife, from one to two years.

For a parent, six months or a year. For children, if above ten years old, from six months to a year; below that age, from three to six months; for an infant, six weeks and upwards. For brothers and sisters, six to eight months. For uncles and aunts, three to six months. For cousins, or uncles and aunts, related by marriage, from six weeks to three months. For more distant relations or friends, from three weeks upwards. It is usual for persons of large fortune to put their servants in mourning on the following occasions:— At the death of the heads of the family, their parents or children, the deepest mourning is given, as follows:— For women servants, one stuff or bombazine gown for best, and two black print or working gowns, a bonnet made of silk and trimmed with crape, muslin for collars and caps, a black silk handkerchief, black stockings and gloves. For men servants, a complete suit of dress and common livery, with hat-bands and shoulder-knots, gloves and stockings. For the brothers and sisters of the master and mistress of the family, the mourning is slighter, consisting of one best and one common gown, and no crape on the bonnet: collar, caps, handkerchief, stockings and gloves, as above. In less affluent families, of course, a difference is made, as it is a great expense to put a whole establishment into mourning, and frequently only one suit is given. For infants or very young children, the nurse or immediate attendant alone receives mourning. Hat-bands, scarfs, and gloves, are given to those who attend a funeral, including servants; and also, in some counties, are sent, as well as cake and gloves, to the intimate acquaintance and friends.

PLATE 20. FIG. 36,

Are worn of black or white silk by all those who attend a funeral; the latter only, if the deceased is a young girl. They are made of the whole width of the silk, and two yards and a quarter long; they are laid in plaits, and then doubled in half the length, and tied together with ribbon, so as to fit the hat, leaving long ends: these silk are replaced by crape during the rest of the mourning. Crape hat-bands are generally put on the best, at the mercer's shop: they are the whole width of the crape, which goes round the hat, and are sometimes put on plainly, and sometimes folded in several folds. When made up, a hat-band is from one nail and a half to three nails deep, according to the relationship of the person to the deceased.

Scarfs are made the whole width of the silk, and three yards long, tied under the arm with a piece of narrow love ribbon. A scarf is worn over the right shoulder, so that the bow comes below the left arm. Plate 20, Fig. 37.

Military men merely wear a piece of crape, two or three nails deep, folded round the left arm, below the elbow.

PLATE 20. FIG. 38.

The hood which is worn by female mourners at a funeral, is composed of black or white silk, book muslin, or cambric; it is the whole width of the silk, and is three yards long; it is made as follows:– Double the silk in half, making three folds in the front or part near the face, all the way down; the


back is plaited or gathered up, and the two sides sewed together for half a yard from the top, so as to form a kind of cap with long lappets; a bow is put on at the gathered part, another in the middle in front, and a third on one side near the ear. These hoods are made in pairs, because those who wear them walk two and two; that is, the bow above the ear is put on the right side of one, and the left side of the other.


PLATE 20. FIG. 39,

Is composed of a peculiar kind of flannel, woven on purpose, and called shrouding flannel; it is made of a breadth and a half, full length, so as to cover the feet; one seam is sewed up, leaving the other open behind, like a pinafore; slits are cut for arm-holes, and plain long sleeves, without gussets set in; the front is gathered at the waist, and drawn up into a narrow piece; this is twice repeated, at intervals of three nails down the skirt, upon each of these gatherings, round the neck and at the wrists, a kind of border of the same flannel, punched at the edge in a pattern, is plaited, and an edging of the same is made at the bottom.

For men, the shroud is made exactly the same as the above for women, excepting that there is no gathering in the front.


If the usual cap is not put on, the following is made for a man:—it is of flannel, cut exactly like an infant's foundling cap (see Fig. 40). A quilling of the punched flannel is put round the face, and a band of it laid on behind, and across the top of the head, strings of the same, are also sewed on.


This is of flannel, cut in the shape of Fig. 41: the round part is plaited up to form the front, and a quilling of the bordering put on, a band of the same laid on at the back, and strings (see Fig. 42).

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Caps are made of worked muslin, lace, tulle, or blonde, and are usually formed upon chip or wire ribbon, either silk or cotton, which gives a firmness, and causes the cap to set better to the head. A few of the simplest shapes are given in the Plate, and a separate description of each is annexed; in the mean while, a few words on the general manner of making up caps, equally applicable to all, may be found useful by the inexperienced. After collecting your materials, and spreading a clean cloth upon the table, begin to make your cap, by sewing wire ribbon on such parts as require it, generally all round the head-piece; the crown is then put in; if a round one, it may be either gathered or plaited—the latter looks the best; the fulness is usually put quite in the front, letting the part at the side of the face be plain: horse-shoe crowns are sometimes fulled a little at the top. The joinings of caps are covered or concealed by a narrow piping or rouleau of satin. When you buy stiff satin ribbon, before trimming your cap, pull it obliquely across all the length, first one way and then the other, to take out the dressing. Bonnet or other caps, made of a washing material, should have white lambs' wool run in the stringcases, when they are sent to the laundress, it does not take the starch so much as the net itself, and thus the ribbons are easily run in again, on drawing the lambs' wool out.

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