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Metal or bone buttons are those in general use to fasten them. The two nails by one and a half

that are over (see K), serve for covering buttons, or make a small gusset for the slit behind, and also for the bottom of the sleeves, if the wristband is made open.

SCALE.
- First Second | Third
size. size. size.
Nails. | Nails. | Nails.
Width of skirt when sewed up ...................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 10 12
Length of skirt ......................................................... 9 11 13
Length of shoulder ................................................... 1} l? 13
Slope of shoulder to............................................. - - - - - - + § +
Length of arm-hole ................................................... 2} 3 3#
Size of neck-gusset ................................................... l } l:
Size of sleeve-gusset................................................... 2 2+ 2}
Length of collar........ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 6} 7
Depth of collar before doubled ...................... -------------- l 2 2
Depth of slit behind................................................... 3 3} 4
Length of sleeve down the selvage ...... 4} 5+ 6
Width of sleeve ........................... ... 4 } 6%
Depth of wristband ............... * - e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - e s a e - e a l l? 14
Length of wristband down selvage................................. 3 3} 3}
Depth of band ................................................. ........ I l 1} l;
Length of band down selvage....................................... 11 || 12 13

LARGE SIZED PINAFOR.E.

PLATE 16. FIG. 4.

To prevent waste, it would be advisable to cut out two at once, as the collars, &c., will cut for both pinafores in one width. Cut two breadths for each pinafore, and from one breadth of each, cut the sleeves. For the collars, &c., cut off a piece of Holland, seven nails long, and divide it according to the Figure in the Plate, first taking off the two collars, CC, the whole length selvage-wise, and each two nails wide; next, the four wristbands, WW, of which two cut in the length, of three and a half nails long, and three nails wide; afterwards the four gussets, G G, two and a half nails square, leaving a strip, two nails long, and five nails wide, out of which cut the two neck gussets, each two nails square, to be afterwards cut cross-wise in half; also little gussets for the slit behind, and the sleeves, if the wristbands are made open.

These pinafores are made up like those before mentioned.

PINAFORES FOR BOYS, OF STRONG BLACK GLAZED CALICO, OR HOLLAND, AT 1s. PER YARD.
PLATE 16. FIG. 2, 3,

Represents the width of the cloth on which the pieces composing the pinafore of the smallest size are marked. Cut two breadths and divide one in half, from the half cut all the et cetera according to the figure. SS are the two sleeves, five and a half nails square. C is the collar, two nails by six long. WW are the two wristbands, two nails by three long. G G are the two sleeve gussets, two nails square. N N are the two neck gussets, one nail square.

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SCALE.
Boy of Boy of
8 years. 10 years.
Yds. nis. |Yds. nls.
Width of material ............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - lj 15
Quantity for one .......... e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l.. 10 2. .0
Number of breadths in each pinafore .......... ........ 2 baths. 2 baths.
Length of breadths .......................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 15
Length of sleeve down selvage ....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5} 7
Width of sleeve ............................................. 5+ 6
Length of wristband down selvage........................ 3 3}
Width of wristband.................. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * - 2 2
Neck-gusset cut in half ................. --- I 1}
Sleeve-gusset...... e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - e - - - - - - - e s - e. e s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 3
Length of collar ................................ ------------- 6 7
Width of collar ........... ------------------ ---------------- 2 2

CHILDREN'S SACCARINES. PLATE 16. FIG. 7. These are exceedingly pretty, if finished neatly with braid or silk, and are generally made of Holland, either brown, or the light grey called French Holland. They answer well as morning dresses, in which children can run about, and work in the garden, with less danger of tearing or dirtying their under clothes, than with frocks of lighter materials.

SCALE.

Child from Child from

2 to 4 yrs. 4 to 6 yrs.

Yds. nis. Yds. nis.
Quantity for one ............ --------------------------------- --------- l.. 14 2. .2%
Width of material .......................................... -------- 12 14
Number of breadths ............. e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 baths. 2 baths.
Length of skirt .................. ................................... 9 11
Length of shoulder ........................... ------------------------ 14 l?
Slope of shoulder....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - # +
Length of arm-hole ................................................... 2} 3
Length of slit behind ................................................ 4 4}
Length of sleeve down the selvage................................. 6 6}
Width of sleeve ................................. ------------ --------- 6 6
Length of collar down the selvage................................. 6 6
Width of collar........................................................ - l l
Length of shoulder-strap............................................. 1} 13
Width of shoulder-strap ............................................. ł #
Sleeve-gussets ................................. ------------------------ 2 3
Neck-gussets............................................................ # #
Length of wristband down the selvage ......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2} 3
Width of wristband................................................... l 1}
Length of band down the selvage ................................. 11 12
Depth of band ......................................................... 1 l

In making up these saccarines, the work must be very good and strong. The hem at the bottom should be about one nail and a half deep. The shoulder-straps and neck-gussets being put on, the slit hemmed, and everything ready for biassing the pinafore, prepare some strong netting silk of a colour that will wash well—black, purple, or white are the best—and then bias the front and back in four rows below the collar. Small spots worked on the gathers, between the rows of biassing, in the same coloured silk, have a finished and neat effect. The sleeve is also biassed at about a quarter of a nail below the shoulder, and at the wrist. For a description of biassing, see Part I., Chapter I. Some persons put coloured worsted braid over the biassing, and, if chosen of a colour that washes well, and sewed on with crewel, it looks pretty, and stands washing better than most kinds of netting silk. Little pockets of Holland should be put in front, being particularly useful to children for their handkerchiefs, &c. The wristbands, collar, and band should have some little ornamental work, either

[graphic]
[graphic]

in silk or braid, to correspond with the rest. FIG. 5

Represents the width of the Holland on which the pieces are marked for the largest saccarine, supposing two of them cut out together, which is by far the most economical way. After cutting out the skirts, mark off and cut in one piece the two breadths for the two pairs of sleeves, and, before dividing the breadths, cut selvage-wise the whole length a strip two mails wide, which will be twelve long, and form one of the bands. The two sleeves exactly fit in the remainder of the width. Cut next another breadth of the cloth of six nails long, and from it take, according to the Plate— Two collars, C C, the whole length, and one nail wide each. Four wristbands, WW, two in the length, and one nail wide each. Four gussets, G G, three nails square, two in the length. Two half bands, B B, to be sewed together to make one, each one nail wide, and the whole length. (The other band is already cut off.) Two neck-gussets, N N, of two nails square, to be afterwards cut cross-wise to form the pair. Four shoulder-straps, SS SS, of half a nail wide and one mail and three-quarters long, and one piece over, which will form a slit-gusset.

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Represents the smaller saccarine on cloth of the proper width. In this case, also, it is necessary to cut two at once, to prevent waste. After cutting the two skirts and two pairs of sleeves, of which two sleeves exactly fit in the width, cut off a breadth six nails down the selvage, and divide it as follows, according to the Plate:— Two collars, C C, one nail wide each, and the whole depth. Four half bands, B B B B, one nail wide each, of the whole length of two nails and a half, leaving one mail over. Four sleeve-gussets, G. G. G. G., of two nails square, underneath which lie Four shoulder-straps, SS, of three-quarters of a nail wide and one nail and a half long, and two other gussets. A strip of Holland, half a nail by three nails, remains to bind round the slit behind, which

makes it firm and durable.
HOUSEMAID'S PINAFOR.E.

PLATE 16. FIG. 8.

House-maids have, or ought to have, a calico pinafore to put on when making beds, as, after cleaning grates and emptying slops, their clothes should not come in contact with clean bed-linen and counterpanes, lest they should soil them.

SCALE.

Yds. n ls
Quantity for one ........................... --------- 3..5%
Number of breadths.............. ------------------- 2 baths.
Width of calico .................................... l. .0
Length of pinafore ................................. 1} 0
Length of shoulder ........................... ------ 2}
Shoulder sloped to ................................ - #
Length of arm-hole ................................. 5}
Length of sleeve down selvage .................. 9%
Width of sleeve .................................... 9
Size of sleeve-gusset .............................. 4

The sleeves should be left large and loose, so as to admit of the pinafore being easily put on and off,

over the gown. It is more economical to cut out two pinafores than one, as otherwise two gussets are wasted.

SCHOOL GIRL’S PINAFOR.E.

PLATE 16. FIG. 9.

Pinafores for the national and other schools are generally made of strong blue linen check, with one or two pockets at the front and sides, in which their knitting and needle-work are put. These pinafores, after buttoning up the pockets, are carefully taken off when school hours are over, folded, and locked up at the school-house. In front, near the top of the pinafore, is sewed a square patch of the linen, on which is marked, in red or other tape, the number of the child to whom it belongs. The child is generally called by her companions by the number of the pinafore, instead of being addressed by her name, which is, in many ways, a great saving of memory, time, and trouble.

SCALE.
- Girl from Girl from Girl from Girl from
6 to 8 yrs. |8 to 10 yrs. 10 to 13 yrs. 13 to 18 yrs.
Nails. Nails. Yds. mls. Yds. mls.
Width of material ....... -------------------------- 12 14 1..0 l. .0
Length of pinafore ............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 12 14 l. .0
Piece for shoulder ......... • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1+ l{ l? 2
Sloped to ............ ------------------ -------------- - + + # l
Slit for arm-hole ............ • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---- 2} 3 3} 4
Hollowed in front ........ ---------------- - - - - - - - - - + + % ł
Length of pocket........ e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------------ 3# 3} 4 4
Width of pocket ............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 4 4}. 4}

A CHILD'S PINAFORE. PLATE 16. FIG. 10.

This is made of brown Holland, or any other neat material, and trimmed with braid or an edging, or simply piped, to give a sort of finish to it. Take two breadths of the proper length (say twelve nails), and sew them together up the seams, leaving two nails and a half from the top for the arm-boles. When thus sewed, fold the skirt in half the width, and hollow out the arm-holes, cutting into the cloth, from A to B, half a nail. The neck is also hollowed to about one nail, from C to D, leaving one nail and a quarter for the shoulders, which are not sewed up, but neatly hemmed and made to button together.

[graphic]

There is no slit behind, but the back is made exactly like the front, either with large plaits, as in the figure, biassed, or gathered. A band, sewed on in front, buttons round the waist. When the pinafore is taken off, the shoulders are merely unbuttoned, and it falls down, as seen on the right hand side of the figure. Lappets or frills may be added with advantage round the arm-holes, taking care to divide them at top, to allow of the shoulders separating.

A SURGEON'S DISSECTING PINAFOR.E.
PLATE 16. FIG. ll.

These pinafores are worn by surgeons over the coat, and are made high up to the neck and down to the waist, to prevent anything soiling the dress while dissecting and performing operations. The pinafores are generally of black, but sometimes of grey Holland. They have two pockets, in which to put the instruments, cloths, &c. &c.

SCALE.

Yds. n.1s.
Width of material ......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l. .0
Number of breadths............................................. 13 bath.
Length of pinafore ............................................ 1..6
Length of sleeve down the Selvage........................... 10
Width of sleeve, or two in the breadth ..................... 8
Length of collar down the Selvage ........................... 9
Width of collar................................................... 2}
Length of wristband down the selvage ..................... 4
Width of wristband ........................ .................... l
Length of shoulder-strap down the selvage ............... 4
Width of the two together before being cut............... 2
Size of sleeve-gusset............................................. 3
Length of arm-hole .......................... .................. 5}
Size of square pocket .......................................-- 5
Distance from under the arm to the pocket-hole......... 3}
Slit width-way for the pocket-hole ........................ 3

The breadth and half are sewed together, the pinafore doubled as usual, and the slits for the arms cut; after which the shoulder-straps are sewed between, and not upon the parts forming the shoulder, taking care to put the wide end of the shoulder-straps (which are sloped as seen below), towards the neck. Put in the sleeves, and set the neck into the collar. Find the situation of the pocket-hole, letting the middle of it fall in a straight line, exactly under the arm. The slit is cut width-way, and a piece of narrow tape is sewed round it at the edge, and hemmed down. The pocket is sewed on (but not hemmed) at the inside with small stitches, and, when done, well flattened with the finger and thumb.

The piece for the shoulder-straps is crossed, making the narrow end about one-third of a nail, as in Fig. 12.

A strong case is sewed round the pinafore inside, made of 2d, or 3d. tape. Two large oylet-holes are made at the sides, and a very long piece of tape is first drawn all round the string-case coming out behind, and secured in front. These strings cross behind, and are carried through the opposite string

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