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Servants’ common sheeting, two yards and three quarters wide, costs 3s. to 5s.
Ditto, three yards wide, costs per yard ................................ 4s. to 7s. 6d.
There is a common kind of calico sold in the piece, or whole sheet, for the poor, which is both warm and cheap.
PILLOW CASES OR SLIPS.
These are made of fine linen for the best, and of coarser linen and calico for the family and servants' use. Procure your material of a width which corresponds with the length of the pillow; cut it one yard and three nails down the selvage. Fold the piece in half its length and sew it up; one end is also sewed up to form the bottom; at the other end, a broad hem is made, say half a nail wide, and strings or buttons sewed on to fasten in the pillow. It is a good plan, followed by some managing housekeepers, to cover the pillows with linen or calico, which is slightly sewed on, and the pillow cover is slipped over it. The advantage gained is, that it makes the pillow-case look particularly white, and as it is of no consequence whether it is of linen or calico, the first cover may be made of any old pieces of either that happen to be in the house. The stock of pillow-cases must depend on the number of pillows to each bed; some beds have four belonging to them, while others have only two; each pillow in daily use, should have two slips belonging to it, and spare beds might have a cover to each pillow, and half the number besides, for the washing. In addition to the full-sized pillows, some persons have small ones made of down, five or six nails square; they are a great comfort to those who are in delicate health, or who suffer from cold.
These are always a yard long, and eleven or twelve nails wide; they may be bought singly, with fringe at the edges, or in the piece, in which case the ends are sewed, or very strongly hemmed. Nursery or school towels have sometimes loops sewed to the ends by which they may be hung to the wall.
Best towels are made of fine diaper, similar to that used for pinafores, and fine huckaback.
The second quality is of diaper, of a different pattern, and rather a coarser huckaback.
Servants' towels are of coarse huckaback.
The stock of towels should depend upon circumstances, such as the frequency or otherwise of washing; but upon an average, from six to twelve should be allowed to each washing stand.
These are of various kinds; sometimes merely a piece of diaper of the proper size is used, at others, a kind of Marseilles quilting made on purpose, and muslin or dimity, trimmed with fringe or frills. Much depends on the shape of the toilet table; some have merely the cover laid on the top, others are bordered along the sides and front with frills or work. Some persons have merely a piece of oil-cloth, the proper size, and bound with ribbon round the edge, upon their dressing-tables and washing-stands they look neat and are very durable.
For these and their cover, see “Pincushions.” One cushion and two covers should belong to each
toilet table. TABLE CLOTHS. These vary in quality, according to circumstances. The finest are the most expensive, and are only used for company. The price varies not only with the size, but also with the pattern. The material of which they are made is called damask, and may be purchased up to a certain size
in single table-cloths, after which it must be bought in the piece. Care should be taken in choosing a table-cloth, to see that the edges are even, and the threads
regular. DINNER NAPKINS. These are also made of damask, and vary in quality and price, according to the pattern. The best are from 50s. to 60s. per dozen. The second quality from 18s. to 45s. per dozen. Dinner napkins are folded in various ways, and are generally put upon the plate, enclosing the roll or bread. The following modes are those usually adopted.
THE HALF-PYRAMID SHAPE.
1st. Take the cloth as it comes from the wash, and open the square length-wise, drawing the folded
napkin to its fullest extent. 2nd. Turn up the ends to meet in the centre. Fig. 7. 3rd. Turn the napkin thus folded, so that the turned up ends are below, or underneath. 4th. Turn up each corner, half-handkerchief-wise, towards the centre. Fig. 8. 5th. Turn the cloth again the other side uppermost, and again turn the corners up to the centre.
Fig. 9. 6th. Take hold of the corners, A B, and by drawing them under, make the napkin stand on its end,
so that C stands up, and the cloth is supported by AB D. The bread is within the hollow, or between
1st. Open the square length-wise, drawing out the napkin to its full length. 2nd. Fold the ends to meet in the centre. Fig. 7. 3rd. Turn up each corner, half-handkerchief-wise, towards the centre. Fig. 8. 4th. Turn down the corners towards the centre. Fig. 11. 5th. Turn the cloth entirely over, and it is ready. Fig. 9. The bread is put in the mouth of the napkin, which should be turned on the plate towards the person. Fig. 17.
1st. Open the napkin length-wise. 2nd. Fold it down from the centre, half-handkerchief-wise, at the centre, leaving two long ends. Fig. 12, 18.
3rd. Take the right-hand piece, and draw it over towards the left hand, making the point, B, lie upon the point, A, thus forming a second half-handkerchief, Fig. 13; turn the end back towards the right from the centre, fold it back again in several neat straight folds towards the centre, Fig. 19; do the same with the left hand piece, Fig. 14, turn the napkin, and it resembles a diamond on a square, Fig. 15.
Napkins are often used to lay under fish, pastry, or sweet things, in which case, they may be folded in the shape of a diamond, or else the whole napkin, being first laid open, is plaited in regular and very small folds till reduced to the proper width; it is then doubled down a little at each end to secure the folds, and to make it fit the dish, Fig. 16.
These may be either white or coloured, and are sometimes open, of six nails square; they are generally fringed. The best linen doyleys are about 11s. 6d. per dozen. The second linen quality, 8s. per dozen. The common sort or cotton, 4s. to 5s. 3d. per dozen.
These are used to lay in the knife boxes, to prevent their being creased, and should be of thick but soft linen.
PANTRY KNIFE CLOTHS.
These are for wiping knives and forks with, when cleaning them; they should be of common but strong material.
PANTRY DRESSER CLOTHS.
These are useful and neat in appearance; they save the paint of the dresser from being scratched. The length and width must of course depend on that of the dresser. They are made of coarse damask, or tolerably fine huckaback.
This is a sort of bag to place within the plate-basket, in order to prevent the sides being greased by the plates, which would cause it to smell disagreeably. These bags are made of linen and fit the basket; a circle is cut the size of the bottom, and the sides are equally well fitted, and sewed to it; these sides are made to hang over outside the basket, a sufficient depth to allow it either to have a tape run through the hem, to draw it round under the rim, or it should have slits to fit over the handles, by which it is secured tolerably firmly to the basket.
PANTRY CHINA CLOTHS.
These are used for washing and wiping china, they should be of a soft and rather thin material, as linen or diaper.
PANTRY GLASS CLOTHS.
These are used for glass, and should be as thin, or thinner than the china cloths. Old silk handkerchiefs are sometimes allowed in addition, to give the finishing polish to glass.
PANTRY LAMP CLOTHS.
Are worn by men-servants, whilst at their work; for a description of them, see “Aprons.”
These should belong to the pantry linen, as they give a clean appearance, and are particularly desirable for coachmen, and out-of-door servants, who are occasionally required to wait at table. These gloves are of woven cotton, and should be marked with their number, &c.
These are used for dusting furniture, &c.; they should be of strong and good quality; linen is generally used, though some persons have a kind of blue cotton check, but it wears badly, and therefore, though cheap, is bad economy in the end.
These should be made of strong coarse flannel, not of a very open texture, or they wear out soon. As they do not last long, it is of no use to mark them further than by over-casting them with different coloured worsteds, to prevent the edges becoming ragged, and to distinguish the kitchen ones from those used up stairs.
These should be of old soft linen, as, if they are new and hard, they are apt to scratch the paint.
CHAMBER BOTTLE CLOTHS
These are for the slop-bucket, and should be of a different colour and pattern to any other, for fear of getting them mixed, and employed for other uses. Blue or lilac checks or stripes are good for the purpose. CLOTHES BAGS. The size of these must depend entirely upon the use for which they are destined. They are generally
made of linen, especially when large. The largest size is two yards long, of two breadths before sewed up; the small ones, two yards long, of one breadth before sewed up.
These are worn by servants while making beds, as, after emptying slops, cleaning grates, dusting rooms, &c., the clothes are apt to soil the bed-linen, which is very unpleasant and untidy.
KITCHEN LINEN. TABLE CLOTHS. These should be made of coarse and often unbleached diaper; the size must depend on the number
of servants, or rather on the length of the table.
These are laid on the dressers and cooking tables, and are of huckaback or coarse diaper; they should be merely the width of the dresser, and long enough to fall over a little at each end.
These are very useful, and are fastened upon rollers fixed against the kitchen doors or walls. They are one breadth, and four yards long, the ends being sewed together; they are put upon the roller, and are used by servants after washing their hands in the kitchen.
Are made of strong cloth; often of blue linen check.
KITCHEN TEA CLOTHS
Are of thin linen, and used for wiping tea things, &c.
KITCHEN KNIFE CLOTHS
Are made of any common old linen, used for wiping the knives and forks.
As these are liable to be stained, they should be made of old towels or other coarse linen.
JELLY BAGS. PLATE 24. FIG. 2. These are made of flannel, and are in the shape of a half handkerchief cut from the square of a yard,
the sides being sewed together, it resembles a reversed sugar loaf The top is hemmed and has three loops sewed to it, which loop on to the corners of a frame which is made on purpose.
These are made of earn, strong canvass or sacking, and are made of the same shape as a ham, or else are square, as a common bag; if the former is preferred, the wide end or mouth is hemmed, and has strings drawn through it, so that when the ham is put in, the bag is drawn up and hung up by them to the hooks in the ceiling. Bacon is also put into bags, which must be open at the long side, with an ample space to admit of the bacon being put in.
These are made of a material usually called in the shops “cheese cloth"; it is a kind of thin canvass.