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cut five caps in the width, of 3 nails each. Let them be 7 nails long, so as to come well over the ears, and admit of shrinking in washing. Fold the pieces in half, measure at the back 14 nails from the bottom, ST, and slit into the cap, TA. Slope off the crown from C to D. In making them up, they should be neatly hemmed, and the hem run at the edge with very fine thread, to make it lie flat, or else herring-boned with very small stitches. Ladies generally have these caps bound with white sarsenet ribbon (see explanation of binding, page 7). The back ought to be herring-boned with very small regular stitches, and the circular part, C D, plaited and herring-boned into the straight part, AT, and a piece of fine calico or sarsenet ribbon hemmed inside, over the plaits. Two runners, or string cases (Fig. 8, FG), are then made by hemming neatly two bits of soft tape or sarsenet inside, at proper distances.

The one marked G not to be carried lower down on each side than H, which is nearly opposite the slit at the back. All the tapes are tied outside, and the tape holes neatly worked round in button-hole stitch. Two tapes for strings.


PLATE 2. FIG. 9, 10, 11.

No scale necessary, as this shape is generally worn only by infants.


This shape is the most suitable for a day-cap for the higher classes, and is generally made of worked cambric or spotted lace. The cap is 8 nails long, to be cut down the selvage, and 2} nails wide; your material would, therefore, cut to the best advantage if 15 nails wide, to admit of six caps being cut in the width. The crown or circular piece is 1 nail across when hemmed, therefore, cut it as much larger as will allow for the turning down.

It is finished as follows: make the runners and hem in front very small and firm, either at regular distances from each other, or otherwise, according to fancy. Sew up the back, H, and make a small neat hem at the bottom, J K, to admit another bobbin; afterwards, whip the top, L M, having previously with pins divided it into quarters. Hem the circular piece and crease it into four also, and gather the cap into the crown, drawing the whipping evenly, and making each quarter correspond.

Fig. 11 is the same shape, but more ornamented, having a worked crown, and made of spotted cambric. These

These caps look very pretty with a white or delicate blue or pink satin or silk inner cap, to set off the work. A piece of insertion work is also put between the runners in front, which adds to the lightness of their appearance.

PLATE 2. FIG. 12, 13.

This is much used by the poor, and is easily made and as easily washed. Take of the material a piece 6 nails down the selvage, and 3} nails wide. Double it, letting D be the doubled part. Sew up the back from A to C, leaving a small hole or button-hole at the top, C; make a runner all round the front and behind, at half a nail's distance from the edge, which is hemmed with a very narrow hem to form a frill: also, lay in a runner from E to F; next, sew a bobbin at B, letting one end of the string hang outside, and the other, being pulled through the seam, remains inside the cap. This end is carried up and brought out through the hole at C (see the dotted line in the Plate which represents the top inside); when worn, the tapes, on being tied together at B, draw up the cap into shape, and if neatly arranged and pulled out with the fingers, it looks very neat and pretty. (See Fig. 13.) Some put a loop of bobbin inside at B, which, on being brought out through C, fastens to a button at B, on the outside.


PLATE 2. FIG. 14, 15, 16.

This is exceedingly pretty, but is rather troublesome to get up at the wash, and sometimes requires unpicking to be neatly done.

Take a piece of cambric 10 nails wide width-way, and 14 deep selvage-wise (see Fig. 15). Take another piece, 6 nails long selvage-wise and 11 wide (see Fig. 16). The latter piece is that part in which runners are made to admit of bobbins.

A crown of 1 nail across is then cut, to which the long strip (Fig. 15) is evenly fulled all round with a piece of lace or edging let in all round. The other side is fulled to the front of the cap, and the border being put on, the whole is completed.

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This is commonly called the horse-shoe cap, from the resemblance of the crown in shape to a horseshoe. The length of the cap down the selvage is 6 nails, and the width 2} nails. Double it, (see Fig. 18, D being the double part,) and slope at the top of the front, L, to the back, M. The distance from M to 0 is 2 nails, therefore, half a nail is thus sloped off. For the horse-shoe or crown (Fig. 17), cut a piece 2 nails long and 11 wide; fold it length-wise in half, and half a nail from the top, begin to round off the corner towards C, to form the horse-shoe; then measure off at the bottom of the piece, while still doubled, a quarter of a nail, which cut off from A to B, curving it a little to give it a prettier shape. The cap is made up with two or three runners in front: the head-piece is put into the crown, the gathers to be rather fulled at B (Fig. 19), and nearly, if not quite, plain from D to D. The frilling is one inch deep.


PLATE 2. FIG. 20, 21.


This shape is only used for infants, therefore, a scale is unnecessary. It is very pretty, though but worn, and never used for the



The cap is 8 nails long down the selvage, and 2 wide. After doubling it in half, fold it again from A to A, and then from A to B; shape a quarter of a nail off the corners, in a semi-circular form. In the front, D, measure 3 nails, and cut off the 1 nail, taking care to cut by the thread, in an upright direction, for the distance of 1 nail, (PG) and then slope it off in a corner, to half a nail below the top. In making it up, sew up the back neatly, and full the cap very equally into the crown, which must be one nail across, when hemmed. Three or more runners in front, and double frills, complete the cap.

Ribbon chin-strings to draw through loops on each side, on account of washing.


A few words on the rosettes and bows usually put on children's caps, hats, and bonnets, may not be unacceptable.

There are several kinds of these bows, of which the following are the principal.

A cockade for an infant boy's cap or hat. This is made of narrow white satin ribbon, sewn on a small circle of buckram, which should be about the size of half-a-crown. Begin at the outer edge of the buckram, and sew the ribbon on in small loops or bows, round and round, until you fill it quite up to the centre.

Lace cockade for a boy. This is often made of some costly kind of lace, generally Valenciennes, and requires four yards. It should be whipped at the edge, and sewn on to a piece of buckram or stiff muslin, beginning at the outer edge of it.

When intended for a girl, it is called a rosette, and instead of being round, it is an oval or long shape, and looks like several frillings of lace sewn together, perhaps 1} nail long. It is made in the same way as the cockade.

A pretty and less expensive lace cockade or rosette, may be made by sewing edging on each side of a broad piece of net, gathering the net in the middle and running it upon a buckram circle or oval beginning in the centre of it and working to the edge, making the lace stand as full and close as possible.

Infants' hats and bonnets have pretty trimmings of satin cut the cross way, and about 11 or 2 nails broad, on a buckram foundation, either round for a cockade, or oval for a rosette; they are merely gathered at one edge, and sewn on the buckram, as described above, beginning in the centre. Being cut the cross way prevents the outer edge roving out easily.

A simple little bow for a bonnet, or to fasten the neck of a dress or pelisse, may be made as follows. Cut off a piece of ribbon 2} nails long, and plait or gather it up in the middle; this is for the ends : take another piece 3] or nearly 4 nails long, gather it up in the centre, and turn the two ends of it underneath, to the middle, gathering them up also, thus forming two bows; lay these bows upon the first piece, and sew them together in the centre, with strong thread: to conceal the gathering, fold a small piece of the ribbon very narrow, and tie or sew it round the middle of the bow, as if to hold it together ; this finishes it neatly.

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Infants' shirts are generally made of soft calico for the poor, and very fine lawn or cambric, for the higher classes.

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Either of the above sizes is very good for babies' first shirts. The small size fits the best for the first five or six weeks after the infant's birth, but with a large baby would soon be too small; the second size, therefore, though rather too large to begin with, is eventually the most useful. As it is advisable to avoid waste as much as possible, the width of the material would best determine the size, taking care, however, that it does not exceed the one, or be smaller than the other of the above scales.

In cutting out 24 shirts (see Plate 2, Fig. 22), cut eight lengths of 10 nails for the skirts (see A), eight lengths of 14 nails for sleeves (see B), and three lengths of 1 nail (see C) for gussets.

In cutting out the first size, choose your calico of exactly 15 nails, to admit of three shirts being cut in the width, of 5 nails long each. The width of the shirt down the selvage is 10 nails. Fold the shirt in half, and then double it again, so as to fold it in quarters (Fig. 27), cut a slit down the two doubled parts in front for the arm-holes (see 0 Q); take care that you do not cut your arm-holes at the wrong end of the doubled part, they should be slit at the end where there are two folded parts to slit down: make them 1} nails deep, then leave a full three quarters of a nail for the shoulder (Fig. O B), and slit down a full nail to form the bosom and back flaps (Fig. B D). The sleeves are li nails long, to be cut down the selvage, and 2} nails wide, so that three pairs will cut exactly in the width of the calico, if 15 nails wide.

The gussets are a bare nail square; about eight pairs will cut in the width. Fig. 26 is the appearance of the skirt after being cut out, when half opened, so as to be doubled once. In making a shirt, hem it neatly with a very narrow hem, unless there is a selvage at the bottom : hem, also, the two sides and the flaps, taking care to do the last properly, so as when falling over, to lie the right side outwards. Two narrow tape strings are sewn to the corners of the middle flap, 7 nails long. The shoulders are sewn and felled with very narrow seams; the gussets are then sewn on the sleeves, which are very neatly hemmed. The sleeve is set into the shirt, and fulled at the top in neat and very small gathers. All the seams should lie particularly flat, and be as narrow as you can make them.


PLATE 2. FIG. 27, 28, 29, 30.

When infants are about nine months old, they generally leave off using the open or first shirt, and begin to wear the close shirt (Fig. 30) until they reach the age of seven or eight years, when the usual shaped shirt or shift is worn.

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Choose your lawn or calico 14 nails wide, if possible, to admit exactly of one shirt in the width. Cut 4 nails down the selvage-way for the length of the shirt.

Fold the piece in half, which will make it 7 nails wide when thus doubled, make a slit down the doubled part of li nails deep for the arm-hole, and put a pin in the two selvages to mark the depth of the other arm-hole. Fold the shirt once more, so as to lay the two arm-holes one upon the other, (see Fig. 27), and, at the top, from 0 to Q, measure 1} nails for the shoulder, and slit l] nails, making the slit B D slope outwards towards the sleeve, about half a nail out of the straight line, as bosom flaps shaped thus, set much better to the figure, and also that part of the shoulder (Fig. 30, P) can be turned over, and confines all straps, tapes, &c. neatly, so as to prevent their being seen from under the frock sleeve.

The sleeve usually put in is 1 nail deep, to be cut down the selvage, and 3 nails wide. The sleeve gusset a full nail square, and the skirt gusset half a nail square. (See Fig. 24.)

The shirt is made up as follows (see Fig. 30). Sew the two selvages together (see R) with fine strong thread, leaving li nails above for the arm-hole, S, and 1 nail below for the opening, or tail of the shirt, U. The corresponding side, H, is double, so that the slit for the arm-hole and for the tail have to be cut. Hem the bottom of the skirt and up the tails, after putting in the gussets (or tail bits as they are generally called). Some people think these tail gussets unnecessary for young children; but they add so much to the strength of the shirt, and give so little extra trouble, that they are well worth the pains. Sew and fell the shoulders with flat narrow seams, hem the bosom flaps, taking care to turn down your hems so as to be the right side outwards, where the flap falls over. Set in your sleeves quite plain, till nearly the top of the shoulder, and full in the remainder, in very small neat gathers. Two tape strings are sewn at the corners of the front bosom flaps

Fig. 25 is another pattern of a sleeve which is very neat when worn, as it is never seen below the frock sleeve; but it has a less finished appearance than the other. This last shape, however, is preferable for children from four to six years of age, from its strength and simplicity, and is made as follows :Cut a piece of calico two nails square, which fold and cut in half, corner-wise (see Fig. 29); fold this half square again, and the double part, D, falls under the arm, E is set into the shirt,and His hemmed neatly for the arm to go through. The great advantage of this shape is, that the shift sleeve is never seen from beneath the child's frock, and therefore always sets neatly (see Fig. 30, the sleeve to the right).

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