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PLATE 22. FIG. 13.

This is simple and pretty, and takes less material than the full valance; it is cut selvage way of the material of such a depth as will accord with both room and bedstead, and exactly to fit round the cornice. This valance is cut in various shapes, either pointed, rounded, vandyked, gothic or otherwise, and usually with tassels fixed to each point or angle to give a finish. Cords may be hung in festoons at pleasure.

PLATE 22. FIG. 14.

This is equally simple; it is cut in breadths and takes about nine on each side, and seven at the bottom, to go round the bedstead; it is sloped or cut nearly to a point in the middle of each of the three sides, where a bow or ornament of some kind may be put.

PLATE 22. FIG. 15.

This is suitable for tent beds, and is hung with a succession of festoons, made as explained before.

PLATE 22. FIG. 16.

This is intended for a camp bed, and is hung in festoons, having however a back valance of plaited or plain material, which, together with the curtains may, if preferred, be of a different colour to the valances.


These vary very much, being sometimes plain and at others ornamented. The material must always lie selvage way from head to foot, and never cross-wise of the beadstead. When plain, the material is stretched across so as to shew neither crease nor wrinkle. Gimp is often laid down the seams and along the sides. When the head is plain, it is usual to put two festoons to give it a more finished appearance. These festoons should be of the same material as the outer drapery. When full, Plate 22, Fig. 20, it takes four or more breadths, and is set evenly into a band of webbing, which is tacked on to the bed, or with loops hung firmly to hooks, so as not to tear the furniture. When starred, Plate 22, Fig. 17, it generally takes eight breadths, four at the corners, and the other four top and bottom, and the sides, these must be shaped to form the square. It is all drawn to a centre and fastened with a brass star. Sometimes they are half starred, as in Fig. 18, where the plaits

radiate from just above the pillow.


These are generally entirely solid wood, but sometimes the foot board is merely a handsome frame of mahogany containing the same material as the lining of the bed furniture.

Fig. 11 represents a foot board of wood only.

Fig. 15 represents a foot board starred within the frame with chintz or calico.


PLATE 22. FIG. 19, 20.

These may be trimmed in a variety of ways, either festoons, as in Fig. 19, valances, or plain, and cut out in vandykes and scollops, as in Fig. 20. This last looks pretty and simple, and as it gives the appearance of great lightness to the head, it is preferable to the others. The backs should be hung to accord with the outside.

Fig. 19 may be plain, with festoons of the outer material.

Fig. 20, with a simple inside valance, or the back fulled or gathered into a half star, or set in flutes.

PLATE 22. FIG. 21.

This is a compact, pretty shaped bed, and as it can be easily moved about, or taken to pieces, it is convenient in an invalid's room as an extra bed. Two poles which rise from the head and foot board, support the curtain rod which should be handsomely finished, and might be fastened on by pushing the ends through the rings or circular holes formed at the top of the supporters, and large ends screwed on to fix it firmly. The four curtains have three breadths in each, and are bound together firmly at the top. Rings must be fastened on, through which the rod is drawn, and fastened to the supporters. Tassels may be hung, and cords if preferred. Valances being put round, the drapery is complete. Sometimes the two curtains, falling one on each side, are sewed together behind.


PLATE 22. FIG. 22.

This beadstead is much the same shape as the pole bed, excepting that it has no supporters or curtain rod, and therefore, when hung with drapery, requires being placed near the wall, into which a pin or arrow is driven, over which the drapery is hung. This shaped bedstead, when not hung with drapery, is particularly desirable for servants, or for schools, as the danger of fire is lessened, and if micely finished and painted looks neat and respectable, besides being economical and clean. When hung, sew nine or eleven breadths together according to the size of the bedstead. Measure the length with a piece of tape, allowing it to droop as it lies from the top of the pole over the foot board to the floor. Sew the breadths up all the seams, and then, after dividing the whole width in half, marking it with a pin, hem the whole, and draw it up folded in two, sewing it firmly to a case which should be made to slip on the pole, something like an umbrella case. Another, and perhaps a better mode, is that of sewing rings to the doubled part thus drawn up, which will slip on to the pole, the head or knob of which when screwed on, would prevent the rings from falling off.

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The drapery to this bed is exactly similar to the arrow French bed, excepting that it is passed over a hook secured to the ceiling, in preference to a pole from the wall.


PLATE 22. FIG. 24.

The drapery for this is also similar to that of the arrow French bed, excepting that it is fastened with tacks round four sides of a handsome mahogany block fixed to the ceiling. To this should be added a handsome valance or deep fringe to hide the fastenings of the drapery.

PLATE 22. FIG. 25.

The bedstead and drapery are as the preceding, but fastened to a head or crown secured to the wall having round it festoons as a finish. Sometimes the head is supported by rods from the bedstead. A valance is added to complete it.

PLATE 22. FIG. 26.

This is also useful as an extra bed for invalids, or for small rooms, as it takes up but little space, can be easily moved, and when turned up, looks neat and tidy. In the one here represented, the sides are made to draw out, the legs to unhook, and the top to take to pieces, so that the whole can be packed in a small compass when not wanted. In making up the drapery, the back may be full, plain or starred; the sides plain or plaited, and two curtains sewed on, so made as to overlap each other a little in front. These curtains loop up at the sides with cords.

PLATE 22. FIG. 28.

This shuts up still more completely than the turn-up bed, and forms a chest or toilet table, when not in use; it looks very neat with a simple toilet cover over the top. These beds are useful on some occasions, in towns and in small houses, although they are not generally considered wholesome, being low and rather confined. They are sometimes lined with glazed calico, and a cover put outside of dimity, frilled round the top, to which is sewed a piece of the same material, very much fulled all round, to open in the middle of the front, down each side of which is put a frill or fringe.


PLATE 22. FIG. 31.

These are principally used by cottagers, and men-servants, and require no drapery, they are called stump bedsteads because the head posts are short, not being higher than is sufficient to admit of a head board.

Sometimes cottagers attach a kind of curtain to a hook in the wall, which adds much to their warmth and comfort, and would appear like a half French bed. This drapery might be two breadths behind, and two on each side, making six in all, which should be doubled and gathered to a strong webbing. Baize, calimanco, or cotton check would be very suitable.

PLATE 22. FIG. 27.

This is the most simple and most common kind of bedstead made, and from its construction, is not calculated to support a very heavy person, all the strength depending upon the power of the two pins or screws which fasten the legs. No drapery is used unless fastened to the wall as in the above stump bedstead. A head board, with two pins, slips into the holes at the top.


PLATE 22. FIG. 29, 30.

These are excellent things for children, especially where there is a large family of sons; for officers' families who are often obliged to change their residence, they are particularly desirable, on account of their cheapness, durability, and the little space they occupy. They are only proper for single beds, but are sufficiently strong for a grown up person. They would answer exceedingly well for cottagers, as in the day time, they might be drawn up to the ceiling, thus affording more room in the apartment for washing, or performing other household duties. They are made for the higher classes as follows:— Procure a strong frame of wood, of about six feet long, and two feet and a half wide, also two round poles of wood, two feet long and about two inches in diameter. Get some strong ticking, or if it be covered and lined, a kind of thick sacking would do, which might have a cover of chintz, and lining of glazed calico. This sacking must be cut according to the Plate 22, Fig. 29, allowing in addition to the size of the frame, three feet at each end, and eighteen inches at the sides. The ends have a strong hem or case sewed to them, into which the poles are slipped. The four sides have lace holes large enough to admit of strong coloured cord to lace them together. The frame is let into the square thus formed, having previously fastened to the sides two pieces of ticking, one sewed on each long side at the bottom. Put the frame into the square, having, however, first firmly fastened at the bottom of the square, another piece of ticking, which shall lace over the frame, down the length of the cot, so as to make a kind of straight waistcoat, which keeps the frame firmly in place. Observe that the cot, which is two feet six inches wide at the frame, is sloped off to two feet at the ends where the poles are admitted, in order to contract the sides a little, this keeps the clothes in place, and if for a child, adds much to its safety. Crimson or other coloured ropes should be employed to hang the cot from under the frame through hems up the high ends, and out through holes made in the poles, afterwards to meet at the hook in the ceiling on each side. A strong cord is also run in at the hem along the long sides of the cot. Fringe may be added at the bottom, if preferred. They should be hung at the same height from the ground as common beds, the ropes should be very strong, and be constantly looked at. They are better when fitted up with two thin mattresses than with a mattress and bed. When not wanted, they will, if unlaced, lie flat against a wall in a closet and take but little room. They are hung from a ring on a hook in the ceiling. Very little cots might be made with advantage to hang in a carriage, or within a very large four-post bed, where the mother might attend her infant without rising in the night to the danger of taking cold. The expense of a handsomely fitted up cot would be about £2, but a common one might be made for eight or ten shillings. There are no further observations to be made on beds, excepting that the more readily the drapery can be taken off and put on to the bedstead, the less will be the wear and tear, so that if small loops or rings could be sewed on the valances, so as to loop over the cornice, it would be desirable. Once or twice a year bed furniture should be taken down and well dusted, rubbed with crusts of bread, and sometimes calendered to keep it in order. On leaving home, the curtains should be rolled up to the top of the bed and put into linen bags, and the cornices and valances taken down and covered up.


The first mattress usually laid on the bedstead is made of straw, it is very thick, and as hard as a board; as these are never made at home, nothing more will be said about them, excepting that they are made in a frame, and should be covered with a very strong good tick or Holland.

The second mattress is made of horse hair or wool for large beds; and for children, of chaff, sea-weed, beech leaves, cocoa nut fibre, paper, and many other things of the sort; chaff and horse hair appear the most desirable, from being cool, and neither too soft nor too hard for comfort. These mattresses are made of various sorts of ticking, of which linen or cotton stripe, and a kind called cranky tick are most in use. For the poor, mattresses are often filled with mill-puff, or flock, and for children, bran might be a good substitute. Mattresses are made exactly to fit the bedstead, being cut out at the corners to surround the post, if they intrude into the square of the bedstead. They have sides sewed all round of one nail and a half or two nails deep.

In cutting out a mattress, the rule is to allow an extra inch to every foot, to give room for the stuffing both in length and in width.

These sides are usually cut the selvage-way of the ticking, and are attached to the top and bottom by means of ferreting or webbing, which is stitched with strongly waxed whitey brown thread, after which, the mattress is filled with the stuffing, and then is tufted, as it is usually called, which is done by passing a packing needle threaded with strong thread entirely through the thickness of the mattress and again passing it back at a little distance, and tying the two ends firmly together. This is repeated at intervals of four nails or more apart, in a straight row along it. A second line of tufting is now done, still at four nails apart, letting the stitches fall opposite the middle of the spaces in the last row, and so on. This secures the stuffing of the mattress, and keeps it in place, little tufts of worsted are sewed to these parts thus stitched, to hide the stitches and ornament the mattress, sometimes mere circles of red leather are sewed on instead.

The price of a straw mattress is from................ 10s. to 30s.
The price of a wool mattress is from................ 35s. to 60s.
The price of horse hair, per lb., is from ............ ls. to 2s.
The price of mill-puff, per lb............................. 2d.
The price of linen tick, per yard, is from ........ 9d. to 2s. 9d.
The price of cotton tick, per yard, is from .... 4d. to 1s. 6d.
The price of wool, per lb., is from.................... 6d. to 1s. 2d.


These are filled with chicken, turkey, goose feathers, and down, for the higher classes, and mill-puff, which is a kind of cotton, for the lower classes. The following prices are an average of the expense of the various articles for making up beds. Mill-puff, 2}d. per lb., of which fifty pounds make a large bed. Flock, at 3d. per lb. Chicken feathers, at 10d. or ls. Grey goose, or turkeys', at 2s. or 2s. 6d. Best goose, white feathers, at 2s. 2d. to 3s. 6d. Down from geese, for pillows, 6s. per lb. Cotton ticking, for beds, at 6d. or 8d. Linen ticking, for beds, at 1s. or Is. 3d. Beds are made sometimes with sides, and sometimes without; in the latter case, nine yards of ticking are sufficient, otherwise eleven yards. Divide one yard and two nails into four, to make the long sides, and another yard, divided into four, to make ends; the bed is two yards and a quarter in length, two

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