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The drapery for window curtains, if for sitting-rooms, is generally attached to one cornice, whether fortwo, three, or even four windows; but for bed-rooms, the drapery is always separately hung. Observe for bed-rooms, that the window curtains should always accord with the hanging on the bed, both in colour and material, as also in shape. Those hangings already drawn for bed furniture will be a sufficient pattern by which to form the corresponding window curtains, therefore but a few additional patterns for bed-rooms will be explained.

It is desirable to have as little window drapery as possible to family or secondary rooms, particularly nurseries and servants' rooms, on account of their liability to catch fire, especially as toilet tables are so often situated within the window. In an upper story, curtains might be dispensed with, using only the valance and corners.

Windows have generally two brass pins or hooks on each side, over which the curtains are hung or looped.

Curtains should always be cut six or eight nails longer than the length of the window, to allow for their touching the ground when looped upon the pin. For a window of three panes, two breadths are sufficient in each curtain, but for four or five panes, two and a half, or three breadths, will be necessary for each. They should be often dusted, and in hot summers, bed-room and even sitting-room curtains might be taken down and put by till wanted for winter, as the sun fades and makes them look shabby.


This is very handsome for a sitting-room, or even for a drawing-room, a kind of straight valance is put behind a rod, to which a deep fringe is sewed. The curtains with tassels sewed to them at the top, draw along the rod with large rings. A lace may be laid down the curtains, at one nail from the edge: this curtain in green and gold looks very handsome.

PLATE 23. FIG. 2.

This style is more suited to a sitting-room or bed-room, being rather too heavy for a drawing-room.

The cornice is of mahogany or painted wood, to which a plain valance, cut selvage-way, is fastened. This valance is either scolloped, vandyked, or cut in any other form at the bottom, and a pattern in cut velvet or lace is sewed on at the edge, and also at about a nail above it. Two plain corners are cut, and with the curtains, are also ornamented at one nail from the edge, with the same decoration as the valance.

PLATE 23. FIG. 3.

This is very neat for a bed-room, or for a common sitting-room, but unless of very handsome materials, might be considered too plain for a best room. To a mahogany cornice is fastened a straight valance, cut down the selvage, and shaped according to the Plate, or otherwise, according to taste. It must be bound with another coloured binding, and handsome tassels sewed on at each point.

PLATE 23. Fig. 4.

This is a very handsome drapery for any room, and is simply a festoon thrown over a pole, as before explained, with double corners. Fringe and lace add to the finish.

PLATE 23. FIG 5.

This is suitable for gothic windows, or for a study or library, it is very simple, and may be formed to any shape, according to the style of the room.

The corners are in a piece with the valance, and are cut down the selvage; a pattern of cut velvet may be laid on at the corners, to give it relief.


This is a handsome drapery for a drawing or dining-room, and might be adapted to any number of windows, by continuing the lower cornice, and providing one or more upper rods, in addition to the one represented in the Plate. The corners should reach more than half way down the window, but the middle double piece should be much shorter. Lace and tassels are required to finish the whole.

The cornice may be black, with brass ends, or entirely brass.

PLATE 23. FIG. 7.

Another very pretty festoon, and suitable for a drawing-room or elsewhere. The middle part is a festoon, with a point attached to it, and, on this account, would require two breadths instead of one and a half, to form the depth required.

PLATE 23. FIG. 9.

This is a beautiful drawing-room window festoon, and requires a more ornamental brass cornice than usual.

The festoons are all very simple, being cut out as before explained, excepting that the corners are longer than ordinary, being looped upon a high curtain pin, so that the ends must be sloped off from one third, instead of one half of the material.

Sometimes with three windows, the two inner curtains of the outer windows are simply muslin, and the middle window has two of muslin, as well as of the material.

PLATE 23. FIG. 8.

Passage or church windows are generally circular, unless pointed; in the former case, they should be hung at the top with a piece of straight material of the depth of half the diameter of the circle, and sufficiently long to be a little fulled to the outer part of the circle. The inner part is gathered to a point in the middle; the curtains simply hang to the rod, ornamented by a little frill, valance, fringe, or tassels, as taste may direct.

There are many ways of drawing curtains together, but the one now most adopted is that of bringing them forwards or backwards by means of one string which at once draws both curtains; the following is an explanation.

PLATE 23. FIG. 10.

Let A B represent the two rods under the cornice, and behind, or concealed by the valance. After putting the rings of each curtain upon its own rod, tie the cord to the ring, No. 1, and pass across through the rings marked No. 2, over the side pulley of the window, down the side, C, round the pulley, D, up the side again, and under the top pulley, and then take it across above the rings, till it comes to the first ring, No. 1, when it is also passed through it and all the others towards E, it is next taken round the pulley, H, and outside the rings, and fastened to the ring, No. 2, in a hard knot. PLATE 23. FIG. 11.

This is an old fashioned simple curtain still in use in churches, small houses, and for housekeepers' rooms. The curtain is in as many breadths as is required for the width of the window, and of the proper length. The top is nailed to the cornice, and small loops or rings are put down the seams of the breadths, at equal distances (say about four nails from each other). Through these rings are passed cords which unite in one long cord, and on pulling this cord, the whole curtain draws up, forming as many festoons as there are breadths, or rather lengths of rings down it. This cord must be wound round and round two pins or hooks placed at the side of the window, at about six nails apart.

Other curtains are passed backwards and forwards like bed-curtains, or have a cord on each side, to draw them separately; in which case, it is passed through all the rings, being fastened to the last or

innermost ring.

These are put within the outer curtains in drawing-rooms, dining-rooms, and sometimes even for bed-rooms. They serve as a great shade to the best curtains, both from dust and sun, and have besides a neat, clean, and rather dress appearance. Many persons take down their chintz curtains when they put up muslin ones.

Muslin curtains are generally made of book-muslin, though sometimes mull or jaconet have been employed. They are made with deep hems and rings at the top, and so arranged as to fall towards the inside of the window. Curtains are sometimes knit or net of cotton, they look very neat and pretty, and are besides very durable.


These are much in use for the lower windows of town houses, to prevent persons from looking into the rooms, and are generally made to reach half way up to the second pane, or merely to the first. They are made of muslin, or a kind of canvass, and sometimes, though very rarely of chintz.

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This is simply cut in as many breadths as wanted to full it to the window, a frill is made near the top by turning down a nail or more, and making a runner, into which the tape is run, to draw it up to the size required, this tape is looped at each end and fastened on to two hooks at the sides.

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This is a favourite and very neat pattern, and is made by sewing six or more breadths together according to the size of the window, of eight or ten nails deep. They are hemmed at the top and bottom, and two gilt or wooden rods are passed through the hems, fulling the curtain well upon them, after which, the rods exactly fit into the window frames.

PLATE 23. FIG. 14.

By way of variety these rods are sometimes put in at the sides, instead of top and bottom.


Sometimes these curtains are fixed in a frame, exactly to fit the width of the window, in which case they are often starred like a bed foot board, and look exceedingly neat and pretty.

PLATE 23. FIG. 15.

These are generally made of linen or long lawn, and sometimes of Holland, calico, painted print, green canvass or gauze, or calimanco. If possible, procure the material of the exact breadth of the window, allowing for a good turning in, to herring-bone down, as blinds wear and set far better without seams, and with the side herring-boned.

They should have tape loops or a case for the rod to slip in, and not be nailed on, as the blind is so apt to wear and tear when taken off for washing. Sometimes a small ring is fastened to the blind at the bottom on each side, through which a cord runs, and is nailed tightly top and bottom of the window, this contrivance always makes the blind draw up straightly. A hem is made at the bottom, to admit of the stick, and a cord and tassel generally fastened to the middle, by which it may be drawn down. A cord moving round a pulley at the top, and a window crank at the bottom, enable it to be drawn up and down at pleasure.


When chairs and sofas are fitted up with damask, merino, stuff, horse hair, or other material that does not wash, they are generally covered with Holland, chintz, or glazed calico, which protects them from dust and dirt, and are easily removed, when required for company. Holland covers are the most durable, but look cold; chintz, unless very strong, should be lined with thin glazed calico. The cover should be made exactly to fit the chair or sofa, with or without piping at the edge, and with loops sewed on three of the sides underneath, and a pair of strings on the fourth side; the cover is firmly fastened down by passing one of the strings through the three loops, and making it tie. Ottomans generally have the covers to fit along beneath the edging of wood, in which case, they must be pinned to the stuffing with very strong pins, which from their length are called sofa pins.

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It is a good plan to make a kind of case of Holland to fit half way down the cushion, A B C D, which protects the cover from being soiled by the head, on leaning back. Each arm chair should have two or three of these cases for wash and wear.


These, besides being covered, should have a length of Holland of one breadth, and about one yard, or more long, for the feet of any person lying down to be placed upon. Where there is an invalid in the house, constantly resting upon the sofa, it is very desirable to make a little flat pillow, put into a muslin cover, frilled all round, to lay the head upon, thus keeping the cushions perfectly clean and neat. DIWAN.

PLATE 23. FIG. 17.

This is a kind of long sofa, without either back or sides, and may be made to open, which forms a very convenient box for large engravings, drawings, &c., &c. The cover should be all in one piece behind, but in front, and at the sides, the top should be unconnected with the lower part, to admit of its opening, so that in fact, the cover must look as much like a box that opens as possible; loops sewed to the edge might fix it into some hooks inside. These divans are very useful for bed-rooms, and would hold bonnets or furs, or mourning, or any thing else, and at the same time, act as a sofa also.


PLATE 23. FIG. 18.

These are made in various ways, and may be got up very cheaply at home. The most simple and one of the prettiest for a bed-room oreven a sitting-room is a cloth or velvet hassockbraided over, or otherwise ornamented. It is cut circular both top and bottom, a straight side is sewed in between, and ears or handles fastened on, by which they may be carried. These are very soft for young children to sit upon.


This is made of two or four bricks tied firmly together, wrapped round with strong sacking, and then neatly covered with cloth, and if not in good shape a little extra stuffing may be added. These footstools are very useful for nurseries, school-rooms, or for servants at work.


PLATE 23. FIG. 20.

Flat circular ones are often in use. Sometimes straw ones are covered with green or crimson cloth, and look very neat. Basses may be filled with mill-puff, straw, chaff, bran, or bits of cloth, &c. Some persons prefer a simple cushion or flat pillow to kneel upon, in which case, they may be filled with feathers.

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Church pews are generally lined with cloth, and fastened by brass nails and binding laid on. The cushions, Plate 23, Fig. 24, are oblong, and made like a very soft mattress.

They have pieces of cloth, bound round and sewed to them in front, to give an air of comfort and neatness to the seat.

The ground or floor is generally covered with a drugget of the same colour as the lining of the seat.


These may be made variously at home, or else cloth or linen covers may be procured at the mercers' shops. Those made at home are generally of cloth or silk, and sometimes, though very rarely, of satin or velvet. Cloth ones are generally bound with binding, and a lace laid on at a nail from the edging. Velvet, cut in leaves or patterns, is sometimes laid on; different kinds of coloured cloth, cut in the shape of oak leaves, or according to taste, sewed on round the edge look very pretty. Patchwork of silks on a black ground also looks handsome.


PLATE 23. FIG. 21.

These may be made by merely hemming a piece of rich silk at the top, through which a rod is passed,

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